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台灣歷史的鏡與窗
The mirror and the window of Taiwan History

戴寶村/Tai Pao-tsun
(國立中央大學歷史研究所副教授兼任台灣歷史學會秘書長)
(Associate Professor of History, National Central University,
and Secretary General of the Taiwan Historical Association)

2001-03-05



歷史就像一面鏡子,可以讓人鑑往知來
。閱讀台灣的歷史就如翻閱一本豐富的
史書一般。從十六世紀葡萄牙水手在台
灣近海航行時,發現了綠油油的島影而
感嘆其美,高呼「Ilha Formosa!」,
從此「褔爾摩沙美麗之島」這個名稱為
台灣這塊小島注入了豐富的歷史生命。
台灣特殊的地形、地理位置、多樣化的
族群與語言都是它歷史獨特性的因素,
因此本日『台灣之窗』由國立中央大學
歷史研究所副教授兼任台灣歷史學會秘
書長戴寶村先生執筆,台灣的歷史發展
概況,為讀者勾勒出一個大體的輪廓,
引領大家進入台灣的歷史列車。

History is like a mirror, we can use it to reflect
the past and predict the future. Reading about
Taiwan's history is like dipping into a rich
historical treasure trove. Ever since Portuguese
mariners first sailed through Taiwan's coastal
waters in the sixteenth century, found this
shimmering green island and cried aloud at its
beauty, "Ilha Formosa!", this name of "beautiful
island" has infused the small island with a rich
historical life. Taiwan's unique topographical
and geographical position, and its ethnic and
linguistic diversity are the factors which
constitute the uniqueness of its history. Today's
"Window on Taiwan" is written by Tai Pao-tsun,
associate professor of history at National Central
University, and secretary general of the Taiwan
Historical Association, to give our readers a
general outline of Taiwan's history, thereby
giving you a hand aboard the Taiwan history
express.

歷史可以鑑往知來

歷史是人群生活經驗的總合,過去的歷
史影響現在,現在也影響未來,歷史就
像是面鏡子讓人看過去,也像窗戶可以
看到未來。生活在台灣的人越來越關心
自己週遭的歷史文化,世界各國的人也
對台灣各種現象感到好奇,藉著構成歷
史基本要素的地理環境、人群、時代的
演變等面向,可以瞭解台灣歷史發展所
呈現的特色。

History can be used like a mirror to reflect the
past and learn the future

History is a the sum of life experiences of a
multitude of people. Past history influences the
present, and the present will in turn influence
the future, and so history resembles a mirror
which allows us to see the past, and is also
like a window through which we can catch sight
of the future. People living in Taiwan are
increasingly interested in the historical culture
that surrounds them, and people all over the
world are also curious about the phenomena of
Taiwan. Looking at the evolution of geographical
environment, people, and eras which comprise the
fundamental elements of history, we can understand
the characteristics which emerge in Taiwan's
historical development.

高度的開放性與國際性

台灣是一個南北狹長的海島,常被形容
成像一條蕃薯,北方的日本在十六世紀
就注意到「高砂國」(Takasago),十
九世紀末期南進取得台灣作為殖民地,
統治達五十年之久。西隔台灣海峽不到
200 公里就是中國的福建、廣東,因此
早期漢人得以渡海來台,構成現今台灣
社會的主要族群。南方經巴士海峽與菲
律賓為鄰,十七世紀大航海、殖民的時
代,來到東南亞佔領殖民地的西班牙、
荷蘭也同時佔領過台灣,海島的地緣關
係使台灣的歷史表現高度的開放性與國
際性。台灣又是一多山的島國,因此高
山、丘陵、盆地、台地、平原、海岸、
動物、植物等呈現高度的複雜多樣性。

A very open and international place

Taiwan is long, narrow island which stretches
from north to south, and is often described as
resembling a yam. Japan, lying to the north of
Taiwan, noticed what they called the "Takasago"
in the sixteenth century, and at the end of
the nineteenth century, Japan advanced
southward, made Taiwan a colony and governed
it for 50 years. Fujian and Guangdong are less
than 200 km to the west of the Taiwan Strait,
and for this reason, Han people from these
provinces crossed the sea to Taiwan very early
on, making up the main ethnic group of
modern-day Taiwan society. Crossing the Bashi
Channel to the south is our neighbor the
Philippines. The seventeenth century, the age
of great voyages and colonization, the Spanish
and the Dutch who came to Southeast Asia to
seize land for colonization came to Taiwan too,
and the island's geographical situation has
made Taiwan an open and international place.
Taiwan is an island nation with many mountains,
and so the mountains, hills, basins, plains,
seaboards, animals and plants combine to
present a highly complex diversity.

原住民族形成特殊的文化風貌

台灣人是由數種不同的族群所構成,包
括屬於南島語族的原住民,通常又分成
平埔族與原住民族,平埔族只是概括的
稱呼,從北到南還有噶瑪蘭、凱達格蘭
、道卡斯、拍瀑拉、拍宰、巴布薩、洪
雅、西拉雅等族的分類。平埔族與漢人
接觸混居甚早,文化特質快速消失,但
在很多地方仍可找到平埔族的後裔,地
名、風俗、歌謠依然流傳,如「台灣」
就是源自西拉雅族稱呼台南安平地區的
地名。目前所稱的原住民族約38萬人,
通常又分成泰雅、賽夏、邵、布農、鄒
、排灣魯凱、卑南、阿美、達悟等十族
,各族的社會組織、語言、習俗文化各
不相同,原住民族構成台灣特殊的文化
風貌。

The Aboriginal tribes form a special cultural scene

The people of Taiwan are made up of many different
ethnic groups, including Aboriginal peoples
belonging to the Austronesian language groups,
who have generally been divided into Pingpu and
Aboriginal races. "Pingpu" is only a general
name: from north to south, there are the Kavalan,
Ketagalan, Taokas, Papora, Pazeh, Babuza, Hoanya
and Siraya tribes. The Pingpu people have lived
and had close contact with Han people since the
early days, and the distinguishing
characteristics of their cultures soon
disappeared, but in many places you can still
find the descendants of the Pingpu people, and
place names, customs and folk songs have been
handed down to this day. The very name "Taiwan"
is the original Siraya name for the Anping
district of Tainan. The people who are currently
known as the Aboriginal tribes number about
380,000 people, and are commonly divided into
ten tribes: Atayal, Saisiat, Sao, Bunun, Tsou,
Paiwan, Rukai, Puyuma, Amis and Tao. Each tribe
has its own distinct social structure, language,
customs and culture, and the Aboriginal people
make up a distinctive cultural scene in Taiwan.

語言族群的複雜性

漢人都是由中國大陸移民來台,但移民
台灣時代有別,十七世紀開始福建、廣
東地區的人民因生活經濟壓力,不斷冒
險渡海來台,由於原居地、語言、風俗
的不同,有福佬與客家之分別,福佬語
系人口約佔70%,客家語系人口約佔15
%,客家人分佈在桃園、新竹、苗栗、
屏東、花蓮等縣比較多,福佬人與客家
人的語言不同、信仰習俗也各有差異,
即使福佬話、客家話本身仍有語腔的不
同,這是台灣語言族群複雜的現象。

The complexity of different language groups

The Han people all immigrated to Taiwan
from mainland China, but immigration is
divided into different stages. In the
seventeenth century, waves of poverty-stricken
people from Fujian and Guangdong, continued
to brave the Taiwan Strait to come to Taiwan,
and because they came from different
hometowns, and spoke different languages
and practiced different customs, there was
a distinction between Holo and Hakka. Holo
speakers currently make up around 70% of
the population, while Hakka speakers make
up around 15%. Hakka speakers are
concentrated around Taoyuan, Hsinchu,
Miaoli, Pingtung and Hualien. The Holo
and Hakka languages are mutually
unintelligible, and their speakers have
different beliefs and customs. Even within
the Holo and Hakka languages, there are
different accents and dialects, and so we
have this complex phenomenon of Taiwan
ethnic groups based on language.

多元族群與移民

1949年中華民國政府移治台灣,帶來150
萬左右的中國各省人民,以從事軍公教
職業的人口為主,這批晚期移民過去都
被稱作「外省人」,他們對現代台灣的
政治與社會造成深刻的影響,外省人與
本省人早期在語言、生活風俗、政治社
會活動等各方面都有所不同,本省人常
以「蕃薯」比喻自己,而用「芋仔」來
稱呼外省人,經過數十年的社會互動,
台灣已有無數的本省、外省通婚所生子
女,「番芋仔」滿街走,一點也不為過
,因此多元族群、族群互動頻繁、移民
社會 是台灣社會發展的特色。

Diverse ethnic groups and immigrants

In 1949, the government of the Republic of
China moved to Taiwan and proceeded to
govern it, bringing over around 1.5 million
people from every province in China, mainly
from the professional (i.e. military, civil
service or teaching professions) population.
This later period of immigrants are known as
"Waisheng Ren," literally, "people from out
of province," and they have had a very deep
influence on politics and society in
modern-day Taiwan. The "Waisheng Ren" and
the "Bensheng Ren" (literally, "people from
this province") had very different languages,
lifestyles, customs and political and social
activities. Bensheng Ren often call
themselves "yams," and use the name "taro"
for the Waisheng Ren. Now, after several
decades of social interaction, it's no
exaggeration to say that Taiwan has countless
numbers of "yam-taros" born to Bensheng
Ren and Waisheng Ren parents. As a result,
Taiwan society has developed the special
characteristics of an immigrant society,
with its multiculturalism and constant
interaction between ethnic groups

走向世界各角落

透過考古的發掘研究,可以瞭解台灣有
很早的史前文化,原住民族雖無文字紀
錄的歷史,但經由語言學、民族學的研
究也知道他們早就定居台灣。至於台灣
真正進入文字紀錄詳細的歷史年代則比
較晚。1624年荷蘭人佔領台灣作為殖民
地與經貿據點,至1662年被鄭成功逼迫
離開台灣,同一時期西班牙人在1626年
至1642年佔據北部的基隆和淡水,台灣
在十七世紀成為海權國家的殖民地,台
灣進入世界史的舞台。1661年至1683年
鄭成功、鄭經、鄭克塽祖孫三代在台灣
,1683年清帝國攻佔台灣,統治212 年
之後在1895年割讓給日本,漢人移民社
會在兩百多年之中發展成形。1895年至
1945年台灣在日本殖民統治下,建立近
代化的行政體系、交通、財政金融、農
業、工業、教育、公共衛生等基礎建設
,這些殖民地的遺產對日後台灣的發展
有所助益,日本時代的建築物各處可見
,台灣人的生活文化、用語稱呼甚多仍
自然沿用。戰後半個多世紀以來台灣的
政治由威權體制走向民主化,工業化的
發展則快速成長,經貿成就卻受到了全
球的重視,即使政治上的國際外交處鏡
艱難,「MIT 」的產品流通世界,台灣
人也走向世界各角落,成為地球村的重
要成員。

Moving out to reach every corner of the globe

From archeological excavations, we know that
Taiwan had a very ancient pre-historic
culture, and although the Aboriginals have
no written historical records, we know from
linguistic and ethnographic research that
they settled in Taiwan very early on.
Detailed written records on Taiwan's history
do not start until comparatively late. In
1624 the Dutch occupied Taiwan as a colony
and trading center, until they were forced
out by Koxinga in 1662. The Spanish occupied
Keelung and Tamshui from 1626 until 1642. So
it was not until the seventeenth century,
when Taiwan became a colony of the maritime
powers that the island entered the global
historical stage. From 1661 until 1683 Taiwan
was ruled by Koxinga, his son Cheng Ching,
and grandson, Cheng Ko-shuang. In 1683 the
Qing Dynasty gained control of Taiwan, and
after ruling it for 212 years it was given
away to Japan in 1895. It was during this 200
year period that Taiwan developed as a Han
Chinese society. From 1895 to 1945 when
Taiwan was under Japanese colonial rule,
its basic political system, communications,
financial institutions, agriculture,
industry, education and public sanitation
infrastructure were laid down. This colonial
heritage was very helpful to Taiwan's
development in the post-Japanese period.
Japanese-era buildings were left all around
the country, and the culture and language of
people in Taiwan naturally continued to use
what was left behind by the Japanese. In the
half century following the war, Taiwan's
political system has moved away from
authoritarianism toward democracy. Industrial
development has grown rapidly and the world
sets great store by the nation's economy.
Although Taiwan's international position is
perilous, it exports its "Made in Taiwan"
goods to the world, and people from Taiwan
are spread all over the globe becoming
important members of the global community.

Edited by Hsu, Shiou-Iuan/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
(許琇媛編輯/何麗薩翻譯)
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