會址:104台北市南京東路三段215號10樓
電話:02-27122836 傳真:02-27174593

《回首頁》
《回台灣之窗》
《吳三連台灣史料基金會》
《Taiwan News》
 ●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●



台灣的史前文化
Taiwan's prehistoric culture

劉益昌/Yi-chang Liu
(中央研究院歷史語言研究所研究員)
(Research Fellow at the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica)

2001-03-19


One of the most important parts of an
archaeologist's work is to
reconstruct the life of prehistoric
peoples

雖然長期以來台灣人對於本土過去歷史的
瞭解有著嚴重的偏頗,但卻無法完全抹煞
過去人群在台灣活動的事實。考古學者告
訴我們,台灣當然不僅只有四百年的歷史
,而是有更長的時間深度,原來就有長期
居住的史前時代族群。近年來的研究成果
,更把人類活動的時間深度延伸到更久遠
的更新世冰河時代,也就是史前時代的早
期階段。台灣地區從日治初年以來,長達
百年以上科學的考古工作,發現大量保存
於地層中的考古遺址,透過考古調查發掘
及研究,記錄了過去人類存在的事實,並
初步建構史前時期人類文化發展歷程;從
1980年代以來幾次大規模的考古發現與發
掘工作,都使得我們重新思考台灣早期人
類活動的過程與變遷,也讓我們重新思考
台灣人的定義。因此本週請中央研究院歷
史語言研究所研究員劉益昌博士談談台灣
的史前文化狀況。

Although for a long time now, the people of
Taiwan have had a biased understanding of the
history of this land, it has not been possible
to completely eliminate the fact of activities
in Taiwan by people in the past. Archaeologists
tell us that Taiwan obviously has far longer
than just 400 years of history, because there
were originally long-established prehistoric
peoples, and research in recent years has
extended the time-span of human activity back
even further to the Pleistocene ice age, that
is, the early stages of prehistory. Over a
century of scientific archaeological work in
Taiwan, starting in the early days of the
Japanese occupation, has uncovered a large
number of archaeological sites preserved in the
strata of the earth, and through archaeological
investigation, excavation and research, we have
recorded the facts of past human existence, and
laid the groundwork for the course of
prehistoric human cultural development. Since
the 1980s, several large-scale archaeological
discoveries and excavations have made us re-think
the process and transition of the activities of
Taiwan's early inhabitants, and the very
definition of "Taiwanese people." This week,
Taiwan News has invited Yi-chang Liu, research
fellow at Academia Sinica's Institute of History
and Philology, to tell us about Taiwan's
prehistoric culture.

已記錄將近二千個遺址

台灣地區自西元1896年發見第一個史前這
片土地上記錄了將近二千個遺址。分佈的
範圍幾乎遍及台灣本島及澎湖群島、綠島
、蘭嶼、小琉球等附屬島嶼。垂直高度的
分佈則從海平面附近數公尺起的海岸平原
,到高達2950公尺左右的山地,比民族誌
記載的原住民族最高的聚落還高。這些遺
址的長期研究工作,已經初步建立了一個
史前文化發展的大架構及其演變體系,也
可以說明一部份史前文化與當代原住民族
之間的關係。

Almost 2,000 sites already recorded

Taiwan's first prehistoric site was discovered in
1896, and since the uncovering of the Chihshanyen
site, archaeologists have recorded almost 2000
different sites. The geographical range covered
includes nearly all of the island of Taiwan, and
the surrounding islands, including the Penghu
(Pescadores) group of islands, Green Island,
Orchid Island and Hsiao Liuchiu. Vertically,
distribution ranges from coastal plains a few
meters above sea-level to mountains at a height of
about 2,950 meters, which is higher than the
highest Aboriginal villages in ethnographic record.
Long-term research work on these sites has already
preliminarily established a framework for
prehistoric cultural development and its
evolutionary system, and can explain the
relationship between part of prehistoric culture
and contemporary Aboriginal tribes.

劃分了許多不同的考古文化單位

目前台灣地區史前時代的人類所遺留的文
化,依時間的早晚,分佈區域的不同和文
化相貌的差異可以分為許多不同的考古文
化單位,由於不知道這些文化擁有者人群
的名稱,考古學者以具有代表性的遺址來
稱呼他們。由早期到晚期可以大致分為:
1.舊石器時代:包括長濱文化、網形文化
、左鎮人。2.新石器時代早期:以大坌坑
文化為代表。3.新石器時代中期:以訊塘
埔文化、牛罵頭文化、牛稠子文化、「東
部繩紋紅陶文化」為代表。4.新石器時代
晚期:以芝山巖文化、圓山文化、丸山文
化、營埔文化、大馬璘文化、大湖文化、
鳳鼻頭文化、卑南文化、花岡山文化、麒
麟文化為代表。5.金屬器與金石並用時代
:以十三行文化、二本松文化、番仔園文
化、大邱園文化、崁頂(貓兒干)文化、
蔦松文化、北葉文化、龜山文化、靜浦文
化、Lobusbussan文化為代表。

Many different archaeological culture subsections

The culture left behind by prehistoric people in
Taiwan can be divided into many different
archaeological cultural subsections according
to how early or late they are on the
time-scale, geographical distribution and
differences in cultural features. Since we
don't know the names of the groups of people
who had these cultures, archaeologists name them
after the sites which represent their culture.
From earliest to latest, we can make these
approximate divisions: 1. Paleolithic Period,
including Changpin Culture, Wanghsing Culture,
Tsuo Chen Man 2. Early Neolithic Period,
represented by Tapenkeng Culture 3. Mid Neolithic
Period, represented by Hsuntangpu Culture, the
Niumatou Culture, the Niuchoutzu Culture, the
"Eastern Rope-Pattern Terracotta Culture" 4.
Late Neolithic Period, represented by Chihshanyen
Culture, Yuanshan Culture, Wanshan Culture,
Yingpu Culture, Tamalin Culture, Tahu Culture,
Fengpitou Culture, Peinan Culture, Huakangshan
Culture and Chilin Culture 5. The age of metal
and metal-and-stone tools: represented by Shih
San Hang Culture, Erhpensung Culture, Pantsaiyuen
Culture, Tachiuyuen Culture, Kanting (Maoerhkan)
Culture, Niaosung Culture, Peiyeh Culture,
Kueishan Culture, Chingpu Culture and Lobusbussan
Culture

在臺南縣所發現的左鎮人

左鎮人出土於臺南縣左鎮鄉菜寮溪河床,
這個地區是臺灣本島相當重要的更新世化
石產地,也是當時唯一出現化石人類的地
點,不過最近高雄縣大崗山區也發現了人
類的化石。左鎮人的化石標本包含來自不
同個體的人類頂骨殘片及大臼齒。經鑑定
屬於更新世晚期的早期智人,其絕對年代
可能在距今二萬到三萬年之間,也就是更
新世冰河時代的最後一次冰河時期。目前
並未發現左鎮人使用的工具,學者推測他
們也許是長濱文化的主人,不過從生活型
態而言,更接近住在丘陵台地地區的網形
文化人。

Tsuo Chen Man, discovered in Tainan County

Tsuo Chen Man was excavated from the riverbed
in the Tsai Liao River in Tsuo Chen Township,
Tainan County. This area is a fairly important
Pleistocene-era fossil site on the main island
of Taiwan, and it was also the only place where
fossilized human remains have been found, until
the fossilized remains of a human being were
found recently in Kaohsiung County's Takangshan
region. Samples from the fossilized remains of
Tsuo Chen Man contain parietal bone fragments
and molars from different bodies. Having been
identified as an early Homo sapiens from the
late Pleistocene era, his precise date can be fixed
between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago, which is the
last ice age of the Pleistocene ice age era. The
tools used by the Tsuo Chen people have not yet been
discovered, and scholars infer that they were
perhaps the masters of the Changpin Culture. However,
in their lifestyle, they were closer to the
Wanghsing people living in the hilly terrace areas.

大坌坑文化為新石器時代的代表

從冰河時代最晚期氣候變暖以後,全世界
分別從幾個適合農業的地區,發展了初期
的農業,因而走進了新石器時代。在鄰近
臺灣的長江中下游發展稻米種植,華南與
東南亞發展根莖類作物種植,台灣是否也
有農業初起的發展,目前還不明朗。不過
在6500年前左右,北部的淡水河口附近和
西南部當時還是沿海地帶的新化丘陵、鳳
山丘陵,卻出現了帶有農業,使用陶器、
磨製石器的新石器時代人群--大坌坑文
化人。

Tapenkeng Culture represents the Neolithic era

Since the climate got warmer at the end of the
ice age, the whole world has developed early-stage
agriculture in several regions suited to agriculture
respectively, with the consequence that mankind
entered the Neolithic period. Not far from Taiwan,
in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,
people developed rice cultivation. In South China
and Southeast Asia, rhizome crop cultivation was
developed. Whether or not Taiwan had started
developing agriculture is not yet known. However,
around 6500 years ago, around Tamshui River in the
north, and in the region of the Hsinhua and
Fengshan hills which were at that time along the
coast in the southwest of Taiwan, a group of
Neolithic people who brought with them agriculture,
the use of pottery and ground stone utensils
appear - the Tapenkeng Culture people.

形成地區性網絡

從距今四千五百年前新石器中期開始,臺
灣地區的人群已經學會種植稻子、小米等
穀類作物,加上原來的根莖類作物,農業
已經多樣化。石斧、石鋤等砍伐森林、翻
耕土地的工具之外,加上石刀、石鐮等收
穫工具,使得農業更有效率,土地贍養力
增加,單位面積可養活的人口大增,因而
逐漸降低狩獵、捕魚、採集等的重要性。
定居時間長久,以及平原地區聚落大型化
的趨勢越來越明顯。聚落中有閒階級增加
,宗教、藝術等非生產行為在日常生活中
的比重增多,聚落間的交換或貿易逐漸形
成地區性網
絡。

The formation of regional networks

Starting from the mid-Neolithic period, 4500
years ago, people in Taiwan already knew how
to cultivate rice, millet and other grain
crops, in addition to rhizome crops, so
agriculture was already diversifying. Apart
from stone tools such as axes and hoes which
were used to clear forest, turn and plow the
land, there were also stone knives and stone
sickles used for harvesting, which made
agriculture more efficient, and increased land
maintenance ability and the number of mouths
that a unit of land could feed. Consequently,
the importance of hunting, fishing and gathering
gradually waned. The period of settling down
grew longer, and a clear trend emerged for
settlements on the plain to become larger. The
leisured classes in these settlements grew, the
weight of non-productive activities such as
religion and art increased, and regional networks
for exchange and trade gradually emerged between
settlements.

Jade ornaments in the shape of
people and animals, found all
over Taiwan.

玉器的製造與交換

這樣的狀態,經過一千年的發展,到了四
千年前左右或稍早,可能由於人口增加這
項因素,使得人群逐漸向河流中游與山區
移動,目的似乎在尋找更多可利用的土地
與生態區位,使得土地利用的範圍擴張到
河流中遊山區的台地和山坡地。當然從各
種工具的複雜度,也看出土地利用型態的
改變,尤其是農業生產型態多樣,生產力
增加,食物無於匱乏,伴隨而來的各種宗
教儀式與藝術型態出現於當時社會中。交
換、貿易依舊盛行聚落與人群之間,這個
階段最具代表性的是玉器的製造與交換,
交換的關係網絡幾乎遍及全台各地,連澎
湖也不例外。最有名的例子是,台東卑南
遺址、宜蘭丸山遺址、台北芝山巖遺址與
屏東 Chula遺址出現了造型相似,製造方
法相同,具有水平風格的人獸型玉玦。同
時人群之間也因為不明的原因,而出現了
獵頭等小型戰爭行為。

The manufacture and exchange of jade objects

This situation developed for a thousand years,
and when we get to about 4,000 years ago,
maybe slightly earlier, perhaps due to
population increase, people gradually move
upstream to the middle courses of the rivers
and into the mountains. The aim seems to
have been the search for more usable land and
niches, and this move expanded the range of
land use to the middle courses of the rivers
and to the mountain terraces and slopes. Of
course, from the complexity of all the tools,
we can see that land use has changed,
particularly in the diversification of
agricultural production methods, the increase
in productivity, food supplies didn't run
short, and in the wake of this, all kinds of
religious rituals and artistic forms emerged
in contemporary society. Exchange and trade
continued to flourish between settlements and
groups of people, and the manufacture and
exchange of jade objects is most representative
of this period. The exchange relationship
network covered most of Taiwan, and reached even
the Penghu islands. The most famous examples
are the Peinan site in Taitung, and Wanshan
site in Ilan, the Chihshanyen site in Taipei and
the Chula site in Pingtung. These jade ornaments
in the shapes of people and animals are all
similar in shape and method of manufacture, and
horizontal in style. For reasons which are
unclear, head-hunting and other small-scale
war-like behaviors emerge between different
groups of people at this time.

奠定臺灣原住民的複雜文化形貌

從3500年前左右人類開始擴張生活領域以
來,逐漸適應並擴張至不同生態區位所發
展的多元文化型態,也因為臺灣山地地區
及河流等地形阻隔,使得每一個塊狀區域
逐漸形成地區性文化,進而轉變成為具有
獨特發展型態的文化單元,今日所見臺灣
原住民的複雜文化形貌,似乎奠基於這個
階段。

Establishing the complex cultures of the
Aboriginals of Taiwan

Around 3500 years ago, people started to expand
their living domain, and gradually adapted and
expanded the diverse cultural forms which were
produced by living in different environments.
Also, because the mountain and river regions of
Taiwan were disconnected, this gradually
brought about the emergence of regional
cultures, and these then became cultural units
with their own unique developments. The complex
cultural manifestations of the Aboriginals seen
in Taiwan today seem to have been established
in this stage.

以煉鐵著名的十三行遺址

距今1800年前左右,臺灣地區也伴隨東南
亞地區青銅器、鐵器文化的興起,而局部
走入製造及使用鐵器、青銅器、金器為主
的金屬器時代,最有名的煉鐵遺址就是淡
水河口南岸的十三行遺址,以十三行遺址
為代表的十三行文化這群人廣泛分佈於淡
水河口至花蓮北側奇萊平原之間的海岸地
帶。

The Shih San Hang site, famous for iron smelting

Around 1800 years ago, Taiwan developed bronze
and iron tool culture, along with the general
Southeast Asia region, but locally, the Bronze
and Iron Ages were represented in this culture
by moving towards manufacturing and using iron,
bronze and gold wares. Most famous is the Shih
San Hang site on the south bank of the mouth of
the Tamshui River where remnants of iron
smelting were found. The people of the Shih San
Hang Culture represented by the Shih San Hang
site were distributed along the coastal region
between the mouth of the Tamshui to the Chilai
plain north of Hualien.

適應與擴張

金屬器除了做為農具、獵具和日常工具使
用之外,銅器、金器有相當大的比例是用
於儀式性或裝飾用品上。取得金屬製品不
易的山地地區,仍然大量使用粗製的打製
石斧、石鋤從事農業耕作,生產型態和新
石器晚期差異不大,只是山區聚落範圍更
擴張到河流上游的高山地帶,海拔二千公
尺以上甚至接近三千公尺地區,利用了山
區更廣泛的資源。平原地區族群則對於海
岸平原與潮間帶資源的利用更為精密,西
南平原的大型園藝式聚落興起,中、北部
則以海岸中小型聚落為多。除了區域自然
資源的精密利用之外,北部的十三行文化
人更利用煉製出的鐵器、銅器做為交換的
物資,進行北部與東部、中部之間的交換
貿易活動,同時擴張交換貿易的範圍到亞
洲大陸南部、中南半島、菲律賓、琉球等
海外地區,將資源利用的範圍擴張到本島
以外的地區。

Adaptation and expansion

Apart from metal equipment for agriculture,
hunting and daily use, a large proportion of
metalware made from copper and gold were for
ritual or ornamental use. It was not easy to
obtain metalware in the mountain regions, and
many roughly-hewn stone axes and hoes were
still used for agriculture and cultivation.
There was not a great difference between this
age and the later Neolithic period in production
methods, but the range of mountain settlements
expanded to high mountain regions in the upper
reaches of the rivers, at an elevation of over
2000 meters, even 3000 meters above sea level,
and these people used the more extensive
resources of the mountain regions. The peoples
of the plains made ever more precise use of the
resources of the coastal plains and tideland,
and in the plains of the southwest, large-scale
garden-style settlements flourished, while in
the central and northern regions, coastal small
and medium-sized settlements were more common.
Apart from the precise use of regional natural
resources, the Shih San Han Culture people in
the north made more use of ironware and
bronzeware produced by smelting as goods for
exchanging, and carried out trading activities
between the north, east and central regions of
Taiwan. At the same time, the scope of exchange
and trade expanded to the southern regions of
the Asian mainland, Indochina, the Philippines,
the Ryuku islands and other regions, and the
range of resources that were used expanded to
include resources from outside Taiwan itself.

Edited by Hsu, Shiou-Iuan/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
(許琇媛編輯/何麗薩翻譯)
TOP