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族群與宜蘭歷史
Ethnicity and the history of Ilan

詹素娟/Su-chuan Chan
(中央研究院臺灣史研究所籌備處助理研究員)
(Assistant Research Fellow, Preparatory Office, Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica)

2001-05-07


Historical photograph of an
Atayal man, left, and woman.

宜蘭是族群文化多元而複雜的移民社會。
自史前時代開始,蘭陽平原就有人類活動
的遺跡。隨後噶瑪蘭人、泰雅族、平埔族
與漢人陸續遷入,展開水與土地的生存空
間之爭。蘭陽社會的族群史可做為台灣族
群歷史的縮影,如今,蘭陽地區雖然以漢
人文化為主體,但90年代以後,社會大眾
興起一股本土文化的風潮,宜蘭人紛紛投
入追尋自己祖先的根。於是,我們得以有
機會一睹蘭陽舞台上的另一場族群文化盛
宴,從中體會保存自身母語文化的重要性
。本週特別邀請中央研究院臺灣史研究所
籌備處助理研究員詹素娟與我們細說宜蘭
的族群開拓史。

Ilan is an ethno-culturally diverse and
complex immigrant society. Starting before
historical records began, people have
lived on the Lanyang Plain and left behind
relics of their lives. Later on, the
Kavalan people, the Atayal tribe, Pingpu
tribes and Han Chinese have moved into
this land, one after the other, developed
its water resources and land and fought
for survival space. Lanyang society's
ethnic history can serve as an epitome for
Taiwan's ethnic history. Nowadays, although
the Lanyang region is principally Han in
its culture, since the 1990s, following the
upsurge of a local cultural renaissance in
popular society, the people of Ilan have
been involved in a search for the roots of
their ancestors. As a result, we have the
opportunity to sample a different
ethno-cultural extravaganza on the Lanyang
stage, and in the process, appreciate the
importance of preserving one's own mother
tongue and culture. This week, we have
invited Su-chuan Chan, research fellow in
the Preparatory Office of the Institute of
Taiwan History at Academia Sinica, to
recount for us the ethnic history of
development in Ilan.

歷史上的宜蘭,以蘭陽平原為主要活動舞臺
。雖然蘭陽平原面積只有330 平方公里,卻
由於擁有複雜的族群、豐富多元的文化,而
在歷史過程中交織、糾葛出一幕幕動人心弦
的悲喜劇。

340 years ago, on April 30, 1661, Koxinga
lead armed Historically, the Lanyang Plan
has been center stage for life in Ilan.
Although it covers an area of only 330 square
kilometers, thanks to its complex ethnic mix
and richly diverse cultures, an endless
interwoven tragicomedy emerges from its
history which touches the heart.

多族群文化背景

從史前時代以來,蘭陽平原就有史前人類
活動居住,他們是噶瑪蘭人,主要分佈在
低濕沼地,依傍溪流而居、形成數十個村
落。雪山、中央兩大山脈的廣大山區則是
泰雅族群的活動天地;而十九世紀初才從
西部遷移進來的西部平埔族群,也和噶瑪
蘭人發生密切的關係。至於嘉慶元(1796)
年開始以集團方式入墾的漢人,因人數眾
多,不但對本地所有南島民族造成重大衝
擊,並且快速成為蘭陽平原的主要人群。

A backdrop of many different cultures

The Lanyang Plan has been inhabited by
humans since prehistoric times. The Kavalan
people were spread mostly around low, marshy
land, and they established dozens of villages
close to the flowing streams. The wide
mountain region spanned by Hsuehshan and
Central Mountain Ranges was home to the
Atayal tribe. It wasn't until the beginning
of the nineteenth century that the Pingpu
tribes from the western region moved into
the area, and forged close relations with the
Kavalan people. As for the Han Chinese who
started to come in and cultivate the land in
groups from 1796, their numbers were so
numerous that they not only created a major
impact on the Austronesian people who inhabited
the land, they also rapidly became the major
ethnic group on the Lanyang Plain.

蘭陽溪的隔絕性與「溪北」、「溪南」的
開墾

蘭陽溪是蘭陽平原裡最長、最大的河流。
流入平原後,在扇端形成網狀流路。充滿
礫石的廣闊溪灘,水道游移不定,下游則
水路分歧易變,水淺流急;在近代堤防修
築之前,蘭陽溪可說毫無通航與使用上的
便利性。因此,蘭陽溪將平原切割為二:
形成「溪北」、「溪南」兩個歷史發展步
調不一的地區。

The isolated nature of the Lanyang River,
and the development of the areas to its
north and south

The Lanyang River is the longest, largest
river on the Lanyang Plain. After it flows
into the plain, at its fanned-out ends
forms a network of waterways. The broad
river is full of gravel, and the water
follows an unfixed path. Downstream, the
river splits up into variable numbers of
branches, where the water is shallow and
runs fast; in recent times, before the
embankments were built, the Lanyang River
could be said to completely unnavigable by
boat, and quite unusable. Consequently, the
Lanyang River divides the plain into two:
creating the "north of the river" and "south
of the river" areas which have had different
historical developments.

十九世紀初,以吳沙家族為首的漳、泉、
粵三籍漢人,運用「結首制」組成拓墾集
團,大舉進入蘭陽平原。由於組織嚴謹,
開墾工作進行迅速,不過十五年光景(嘉
慶 1-15年,1796-1810),就已開墾蘭陽
溪北的土地;而從噶瑪蘭廳的設置到嘉慶
、道光兩朝更替的十年間,溪南草埔也很
快轉變為水田稻作的農地。道光至光緒年
間(1821-1895),漢人與平埔族群共組開
墾集團,深入蘭陽溪上游,開墾今三星鄉
及一部份員山鄉。經由此一長達百年的入
墾過程,蘭陽平原遂轉變成以漢人為主的
街莊世界。

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Han
Chinese from three different areas in China --
Guangdong, and Quanzhou and Zhangjiang, both in
Fujian -- and led by the Wu Sha Clan, formed armed
groups to develop the land, and entered the Lanyang
Plain in great numbers. Because they were so well
organized, development work proceeded rapidly, and
in under 50 years (the first 15 years of the Jiaqing
Reign were 1796-1810), the Lanyang Plain north of
the river had already been fully developed. During
the 10 years from the establishment of the Kavalan
Office to the Daoguang Reign, the grasslands to the
south of the river also rapidly became paddy fields
for agriculture. From 1821 to 1895, Han Chinese and
Pingpu people worked together in land-development
teams, penetrating far upstream the Lanyang River,
developing Chin San Hsing Township and part of Yuen
Shan Township. Having been through this century of
development, the Lanyang Plan had become a world of
streets and villages, populated mainly by Han Chinese
.

Han Chinese consecrated temple.

清朝政府的難題

噶瑪蘭初入版圖,清廷必須處理的族群問
題有四:一是如何阻隔中央山地的泰雅族
人,使其不得逸入平原墾區,造成治安的
困擾?二是在漢人自行入墾、國家不及防
範的前提下,如何彌補溪北噶瑪蘭村社已
經形成的土地流失問題;及如何防止溪南
噶瑪蘭村社重蹈覆轍,以保留適量土地讓
他們維持基本生計?三是如何在兼顧噶瑪
蘭人土地所有與生計的同時,也能妥善控
制漢人的開墾秩序,並進行土地的分配?
最後,則是如何安排西部平埔族群的角色
與生計?

The difficulties of the Qing government

When the Kavalan people were first brought into
the domain of the Qing government, there were
four ethnic problems that Qing court had to
deal with: one was how to cut off the Atayal
people from the central mountain regions, so
that they could not access the developed land
of the plain, and create problems with public
order. Seeing that Han Chinese had come here
of their own accord to cultivate the land,
before the nation could take any countermeasures,
the second problem was how to make up for the
problem of loss of land which had already been
created in the Kavalan villages to the north of
the river; and how to prevent the Kavalan
villages south of the river from making the
same mistakes, and preserving a suitable amount
of land to allow them to keep on making a basic
living. The third problem was how to
simultaneously pay attention to the land owned
by Kavalan people, and the livelihoods they
made, while keeping proper controls so that
Han Chinese developed the land in an orderly
fashion, while carrying out land allocation.
Finally, how was the Qing to make arrangements
for the roles and livelihood of the western
Pingpu tribes?

針對泰雅人,清廷與民間沿山腳連續設置
二十處隘寮,形成一道防線,以遏止山地
住民出草。這些隘寮,不僅形成武力防堵
線,也反映山地、平原住民的族群邊界。
至於噶瑪蘭人的土地與生計、漢人的入墾
及土地需求,事實上是一體兩面、無法分
開對待或個別處理的問題;清廷採用一種
特別的土地制度「加留」制,以同時解決
雙方的需求。西部平埔族,因其外來者的
特殊角色,不能納入官府對漢民的資源分
配範圍,也未能享有噶瑪蘭的土地福利,
而變成蘭陽平原上處境尷尬的真正少數。

Focusing on the Atayal people, the Qing court
and local people set up a chain of 20 huts in
the passes along the foot of the mountains,
forming a line of defense to prevent the people
who lived in the mountains from coming out into
the plain for headhunting. These mountain huts
not only formed an armed line of defense, they
also reflected the border between the inhabitants
of the mountains and the inhabitants of the
plain. As for the land and livelihoods of the
Kavalan people, the land development and land
needs of the Han Chinese, these were actually
two sides of the same coin, and it was
impossible to separate either and treat it as
an individual question; the Qing court used a
special land system which they called "ke-lau,"
and solved the requirements of both sides at the
same time. The western Pingpu tribes, because of
their distinctive role as outsiders, could not
be absorbed into the range of those Han Chinese
who were allocated resources by government
offices, and they did not yet enjoy the land
benefits which the Kavalan people had, but
instead they became a true minority with
ambiguous status on the Lanyang Plain.

漢人與噶瑪蘭人的生存空間競爭

漢人的農業拓墾,目的在獲取土地、並將
「荒埔」轉變成適於水田稻作的農地。因
此,漢人不但在拓墾過程中,由領導者分
配土地;清廷也想盡辦法,替漢人製造租
佃土地的機會。清代宜蘭開築多條埤圳,
灌溉田園,可耕地因此快速水田化。然而
,漢人改造土地生產方式的結果,不僅引
進水利制度,也導致自然生態的改變。漢
人眼中有待改造的「荒埔」,原是噶瑪蘭
人狩獵的草地;曲折、蜿蜒、易氾濫的溪
流,提供噶瑪蘭人豐富的水生資源與交通
管道。全面性的水利設施使蘭陽平原成為
稻米產量穩定的穀倉,但另一方面卻使噶
瑪蘭人從此失去經營、維持傳統社會文化
生活的自然環境。不僅如此,漢人街莊的
大量成立,也使噶瑪蘭村落被緊密包圍;
蘭陽平原的空間族群性開始從量變步入質
變的過程。

Competition for survival space between Han
Chinese and Kavalan

Han Chinese agricultural exploitation aimed to
obtain land, and turn the "wild plains" into
agricultural land suitable for rice cultivation.
As a result, the Han Chinese not only had their
leaders distribute the land during the development
process, the Qing court too did its best to think
up ways to create opportunities to rent out land
on behalf of the Han Chinese. During the Qing
dynasty, many ditches were constructed in Ilan,
to irrigate the fields and gardens, and as a
result, arable land was rapidly turned into paddy
fields. However, the result of Han transformation
of land production techniques not only brought in
irrigation systems, it also led to a change in the
natural ecology. The "wild plains," which in Han
Chinese eyes needed to be transformed, had been
the Kavalan people's hunting grounds; intricate,
twisting streams and rivers which easily burst
their banks, and provided the Kavalan with rich
aquatic resources and channels for transport. The
comprehensive irrigation facilities turned the
Lanyang Plain into a granary of stable rice
production, but the other aspect of this
development was the loss for the Kavalan people
of the management and preservation of the natural
environment for their traditional culture and
lives. Not only this, but the large-scale
establishment of roads and villages by the Han
Chinese also encroached tightly onto the Kavalan
villages, and the space on the Lanyang Plain and
ethnic distribution went through a process first
of quantitive, and then qualitative change.

Historical phtograph of
Kavalan people.

噶瑪蘭人在進入清代國家體制後,傳統社
會文化開始產生巨大變遷。此變遷一方面
造成噶瑪蘭村落「貧窮化」,一方面使噶
瑪蘭人成為大環境中最底層的社會階級。
族群差異與貧窮、低位階相互結合,形成
生活困難、備受歧視的族群處境。離開原
居地的族群關係、尋求新空間的生存機會
,是噶瑪蘭人解脫困境的策略。

After the Kavalan people entered into the
"country" system of the Qing dynasty, their
traditional society and culture started to
undergo massive changes. These changes on
one hand produced an "impoverishment" of the
Kavalan villages, and on the other hand, put
the Kavalan people at the very bottom
stratum of the social hierarchy in the
greater environment. The combination of
ethnic differences, poverty and low status
made life very difficult, and they suffered
from racial discrimination. The Kavalan
strategy for shaking off these difficulties
was to leave the ethnic relationship of their
original homes and seek opportunities for
survival someplace new.

噶瑪蘭族的遷徙

我們發現,噶瑪蘭人從十九世紀中葉開始
,不但在蘭陽平原境內、境外展開大大小
小的移動,使其分佈超越原居地的空間範
圍,還可以歸納出一個大致的趨勢:溪北
的部份社眾,往頭城靠雪山山脈的狹小海
岸平原遷移;溪南的部份社眾,則往接近
中央山脈的蘇澳、南方澳遷移。而無論溪
南、溪北,共同吸引噶瑪蘭人與西部平埔
族群起而去的新天地,則是三星地區與花
蓮平原。

The migration of the Kavalan people

We discover that starting in the mid-nineteenth
century, the Kavalan people, whether living on
the Lanyang Plain or outside it, launched
migrations large and small, and spread beyond
the scope of their original homes, and we can
even conclude a general trend: the communities
north of the Lanyang River moved to Toucheng,
on the narrow coastal plain, nestling up against
the Hsuehshan Mountain Range. The communities
south of the river moved to Su'ao and Nanfang'ao,
close to the Central Mountain Range. The new world
which attracted both Kavalan and Western Pingpu
people from the communities north and south of the
river was the Sanhsing region, and the Hualien
Plain.

近一百年來,花蓮平原、東海岸一帶一群
被稱為「加禮宛族」的人,就是南下遷徙
的宜蘭噶瑪蘭後裔。這群移民的宜蘭原鄉
,雖然包括溪南、溪北好幾個村落,但因
大多由加禮宛港(今冬山河接蘭陽溪出口)
移出,而在花蓮地區被稱為加禮宛人。到
今天為止,包括花蓮縣新城鄉、花蓮市、
豐濱鄉,及臺東縣長濱鄉等處,都有噶瑪
蘭後裔分佈;其中人數較具規模的聚落,
則為:新社、立德與大峰峰。

For nearly a hundred years, the people
along Hualien Plain and the east coast were
known as the "Kalewan tribe" people, and
they were the descendants of the Kavalan
people from Ilan who had migrated south.
The Ilan home of this group of migrants
included several villages both north and
south of the Lanyang River, but because
most of these people had moved from
Kalewan Harbor (now an outlet of the
Tungshan and Lanyang Rivers), in the
Hualien region, they became known as the
Kalewan people. To this day, Hsincheng
Township, Hualien City and Fengpin Township
in Hualien County, and Chanpin Township in
Taitung County are all places where the
descendants of the Kavalan people are now
distributed. Places which have a fairly
strong Kavalan presence include Hsin She
(in Hualien County), Liteh (Hualien County),
and Tafengfeng (Taitung County).

族群意識的甦醒與復名運動

移居花東,使噶瑪蘭人的傳統社會文化與
母語得以部份保存;「我是噶瑪蘭」的自
覺,也使其族群不像其他平埔族群那般隱
晦。九○年代以來,隨著社會大眾對認識
本土文化的強烈需求,噶瑪蘭後裔也開始
追尋自己的歷史、強調族群意識、要求政
府予以正名與承認,此即噶瑪蘭的復名運
動。

Revival of ethnic consciousness and
reclaiming old names

The relocation to Hualien and Taitung actually
made it easier for the Kavalan people to
preserve some of their traditional society,
culture and mother tongue. The consciousness
that "I am a Kavalan" also made the Kavalan
tribe different from the other Pingpu tribes,
whose identity has become more obscure over
time. Since the 1990s, in the wake of the
intense need for much of society to
acknowledge its native culture, the
descendants of the Kavalan have begun to
seek out their history, emphasize their
ethnic identity, and demand that the
government formally name and acknowledge
them. The movement to reclaim the name of
the Kavalan has been born.

Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
(李美儀編輯/何麗薩翻譯)
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