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一級古蹟 -- 金廣福公館
A first rank historic relic -- Chin Kuang Fu House

范明煥老師/Fan Ming-hwang
(明新技術學院通識科)
(General Education Department, Ming Hsin Institute of Technology)

2001-05-14


Exterior view of T'ien-shui T'ang

金廣福是台灣墾拓事業中少數閩客合作的
特例,也是新竹地區內山拓墾事業的終結
者。這座一百六十餘年的國家一級古蹟雖
然外觀看起來毫不起眼,內部亦殘破荒涼
、令人唏噓,但它卻記錄了新竹內山閩客
先民的開拓史,它的建築亦融合了閩客建
築古風與墾拓社會簡樸有力的建築語彙。
本週特別邀請明新技術學院通識科教授范
明煥由這幢歷盡滄桑的古建築談起,述說
這段新竹內山開拓史的意義及其特殊性。

Chin Kuang Fu was an exceptional and unusual
case of Hokkien and Hakka cooperation in
Taiwan's pioneer industries, and also the
last pioneer enterprise in Hsinchu's
mountain region. Although this first rank
historical site, which is over 160 years
old, looks nothing special, and its interior
is dilapidated and bleak, it is a record of
the history of development in the mountains
of Hsinchu between Hokkien and Hakka
forebears, and its structure also combines
architectural motifs of both Fujian and
Hakka-style old buildings and the simple
yet powerful architectural style of pioneer
society. This week, we have invited Fan
Ming-hwang from the General Education
Department of the Ming Hsin Institute of
Technology to write about this old building
which has been through so many troubles and
changes, and to describe the significance
and characteristics of the pioneer history
of Hsinchu's mountain region.

一個不起眼的國家一級古蹟

第一眼看到它,你很難想像,或許你會很失
望,想:「怎麼會這樣呢?」「這就是創建
已一百六十餘年的國家一級古蹟?」金廣福
公館是座小格局的四合院,位於新竹縣北埔
鄉北埔村中正路六號,外觀不甚起眼,既不
宏偉氣派,建築也毫無精緻之處,風采還常
被斜對面的天水堂搶去了!國中版的「認識
臺灣」教科書與精省前的省府省政資料館編
印的臺灣重要一級古蹟簡介,都張冠李戴的
把天水堂的照片誤植成金廣福公館,一般人
想像中的國家一級古蹟不應當是這樣嘛!

A national first rank historical site which
looks nothing special

At first sight, it's very hard to imagine,
and you may feel disappointed, and think:
"How can it be?" "This is a national
historical site of the first rank, with
over 160 years of history behind it?" Chin
Kuang Fu House is a traditional courtyard
house on a small scale, situated at no. 6,
Chung-cheng Road, Pei-pu Village, Pei-pu
Hsiang, in Hsinchu County, and doesn't look
like much from the outside. It doesn't have
a particularly majestic air to it, and it's
not particularly fine architecture, and
T'ien-shui T'ang, which stands directly
opposite, is rather a scene-stealer! The
junior high school textbook "Know Taiwan",
and the introduction to Taiwan's important
first-rank historic sites in the resources
library at the former provincial government
both mixed these two up and mistakenly used
photographs of T'ien-shui T'ang, and most
people wouldn't imagine a national first-rank
historic site to look this way!

T'ien-shui T'ang

要被評為一級古蹟,談何容易!北臺灣不過
三處,桃竹苗則僅此一處。乍一見面,千萬
不要給它那寒酸破落的外表給騙了!金廣福
公館就是以創建背景的特殊性與歷史性取得
這份榮耀的。

It is very difficult for a building to be
judged a historic site of the first rank!
There are only three in northern Taiwan, and
Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli have only one
between them. At first sight, don't be
deceived by its shabby, sorry exterior! Chin
Kuang Fu House's glory derives from the
unusual and historical aspects of its
background.

閩客合作開墾的特例

金廣福墾號的成立是先民易守為攻,改消極
的防禦為積極拓墾的再出發,也是閩客合作
的特例,更是新竹地區內山拓墾事業的終結
者。金廣福公館正是金廣福墾號留存的證據
,也是全臺偌多公館中唯一倖存的活標本,
這就是它被評定為國家一級古蹟的最大原因
,也就是它最大的特色。

An unusual example of Hokkien-Hakka
cooperation in development

The establishment of the Chin Kuang Fu
development business marked a change among
pioneers from defending their interests to
an aggressive development, changing passive
defense into setting out on active
development. It was also an unusual example
of cooperation between Hokkien and Hakka
speakers, and the final development business
in the Hsinchu mountain region. Chin Kuang
Fu House is the remaining testimony to the
Chin Kuang Fu development business, and the
only surviving example of many such mansions
in the whole of Taiwan. That's the main
reason why it has been judged a national
historic relic of the first rank, and its
most special distinguishing feature.

金廣福公館是金廣福墾號的墾荒大本營,也
是總公司所在地,它建立的第一項要務是隘
務(防止原住民入侵的防禦事務),因為要
防止原住民的出草為害與反撲,所以沿內山
設立多處隘寮,派駐隘丁駐守巡防,構成防
禦上的大隘線,因此它是與原住民作戰與後
勤支援的司令部。隘防既成,隘設而後墾隨
,所以它也是設職辦事,招收墾佃,徵收隘
租的總部。

Chin Kuang Fu House was the base camp for the Chin
Kuang Fu development business, which brought
virgin land under cultivation, and the head office
too. The first major business for which it was set
up was "strategic pass" business (defense work to
prevent Aborigines from invading the area), because
people wanted to stop Aborigines from head-hunting,
so many pass fortifications were constructed along
the foot of the mountains, and special garrison
patrols were sent to man them, and a line of pass
fortifications was constructed for defense. As a
result, [Ching Kuang Fu] was a headquarters for
battle with Aborigines, and for logistical support.
The pass defenses were already built, and
development followed, and so Ching Kuang Fu was
the headquarters for recruiting tenant farmers to
develop the land, and collecting rent from them.

Exterior view of Chin kuang Fu House

「金廣福」的命名

用現代術語說,金廣福墾號大概就是金廣福
土地開墾股份有限公司,它是首次由官方補
助主導,再由閩、客兩籍同胞合資組成的。
金廣福的命名,其中「廣」代表廣東,「福
」代表福建殆無疑義,但對「金」一般則有
兩種解釋,一說金代表官方(滿清),意味
著受到官方保護補助的意思;第二種說法,
可以吳子光一肚皮集「金廣福大隘記」為代
表,認為「臺商俗例,爭取得金意義,凡會
計簿多以金字蒙頭;廣謂廣東也……故名金
廣福大隘雲」,可見「金」代表吉祥的意思
,套一句時下最流行的術語,就是「利多」
。根據資料顯示,苗栗、新竹內山以金字為
首的墾號甚多,如金惠成、金協成、金和成
、金萬成……均冠以金字,卻未有官方補助
,故金代表官方一說,理由似嫌不足。

The name of "Chin Kuang Fu"

In today's terminology, the Chin Kuang Fu
development business would be something like
"the Ching Kuang Fu Land Development Company,
Ltd." To begin with, it was subsidized by
government officials, and then jointly made up
of Taiwanese from both Hokkien and Hakka
backgrounds. The name

墾號的組織與分工

金廣福的組成,一方面是要防止原住民的出
草騷擾,一方面則是為了樟腦及土地的利益
,所以當時的淡水同知李嗣於道光十四年(
一八三四)十二月,先給銀一千元,命令九
芎林(今新竹芎林)莊總理───粵藉的姜
秀鑾建隘樓十五座,僱募隘丁一百六十人,
負責沿山一帶防務。道光十五年(一八三五
)二月,更先後下令塹城西門經理林德修及
周邦正與姜秀鑾同立合約,組織金廣福總墾
戶的合資墾號。公號既成,姜週二人乃分工
合作,由周在塹運籌帷幄及洽公,姜氏則駐
守開墾現場,擔任守隘防番及督工開墾之任
務。
  姜氏一面調配原有隘丁,向內層逐漸縮
小對原住民包圍圈,並隨即招佃開墾,以強
化防番力量;一方面對原住民採取強力中央
突破戰術,率領數百人眾由竹東三角城循原
住民出草劫掠耕牛之牛路,突入今之北埔,
擊退原住民以為根據地,即在中正路現址建
立金廣福公館為辦公處所,統轄全部墾務,
所以金廣福公館的建築年代當在道光十五年
(一八三五)或左右。

K'en hao organization and division of
responsibilities

The Chin Kuang Fu K'en Hao was originally
established, on the one hand, to defend against
the aboriginal harassment and, on the other hand,
to exploit camphor trees and claim new lands. It
got underway in the 2nd lunar month of the 14th
year of the Tao Kuang reign period of the Ch'ing
Dynasty (1834), when Li Szu of Tanshuei Subprefect,
gave1,000 silver yuan to the Kuangtung-emigre
headman Chiang Hsiu-luan of Chiu Ch'iung Lin, the
earlier name of present-day Ch'iunglin in Hsinchu
County), ordering him to construct 15
fortifications and to hire160 guards for security
of the Yenshan region. In the 2nd month of the
following year, Li further contracted Lin Te-hsiu
and Chou Pang-cheng, superintendents of the West
Gate of Ch'iencheng, along with Chiang to set up
the k'en hao later to be headquartered at Chin
Kuang Fu House. After its establishment, Chiang
and Chou continued to jointly supervise the k'en
hao enterprise. Chou based in Ch'iencheng where
he was responsible for logistics, while Chiang
based in the K'en Hao region itself, overseeing
its defense and development.

On the one hand, Chiang employed his original
group of frontier guardsmen to push into the
interior and gradually push out the Aborigines,
while at the same time recruiting ethnic-Han
tenant farmers who could likewise serve the
purpose of countering Aboriginal forces. On the
other hand, he employed the tactic of blitzkrieg
attacks into the aboriginal heartland, leading
several hundred men from the Chutung triangle
region along a path often used by the aborigines
for raiding and making off with water buffalos,
and finally arriving at present-day Pei Pu,
which had served as the retreating Aborigines
primary base. Subsequently, he constructed the
Chin Kuang Fu House as his general headquarters
from which all frontier development activities
were directed. Thus, the date of erection of
Chin Kuang Fu House must be about 1835.

Courtyard and main hall of Chin
Kuang Fu House (main hall)

公館的建築風格與裝飾

金廣福是一幢四合院格局的建築,屬二進一
院的客家雙堂屋,構造簡潔,不尚華麗。半
人高的石板牆基與五十公分以上厚度的土牆
,加上厚重的木門和暗藏角落的幾個槍眼(
射口),在在表現出昔日邊疆社會那種強烈
的防禦性質。
  第一進屋頂桁條下原本高懸著光緒十年
新竹知縣徐錫祉賞與姜紹基的「義聯枌社」
(是枌,音ㄈㄣ,不是扮,通常誤為扮,枌
是鄉里的意思。)木匾,為了防盜,已經拆
下。第一進門廳不裝隔屏,是一種敞廳式作
法,另外,白粉牆也是客家建築的特色之一
。以青石板鋪成的中庭,充滿不盡的古意。
第二進正廳屋結構比前廳更為拙樸有力,可
惜在歷經百餘年歲月的洗禮後,不耐風雨摧
殘,後方屋頂已經塌陷了!原本桁條下懸掛
的「金廣福」木匾同樣因為怕被偷而拆下,
空留兩個基座,一級古蹟,淪落如斯,一番
殘破荒涼的景像,令人鼻酸!

Architectural style and decoration of Chin
Kuang Fu House

Chin Kuang Fu House is a walled-in-compound
structure, featuring traditional Hakka
"duplex" design with two separate buildings
facing each other across a central courtyard.
The structure is relatively austere, without
any flourishes. The bottom half of the walls
are constructed of stone, topped by earthen
wall extensions more than 50 centimeters thick.
The doors are of thick, heavy wood, and the
corners of the rooms have hidden gun ports,
reminding us of the fierce defensive mentality
of the frontier society of yore.

Originally suspended from the rafters the roof
of one side of the duplex was a wooden plaque
engraved with the large characters "I-lien
Village" and with the smaller inscriptions "
Kuang Hsu Reign Period Year 10 (1885), Hsinchu
Prefecture" and "Hsu Hsi-chih presents to
Chiang Shao-chi." The plaque has now been
removed to prevent theft. The space inside
this first building is not partitioned into
smaller rooms, having the appearance of a
spacious hall. It's white-washed walls are
characteristic of Hakka traditional
architecture. The greenish stone-slab flooring
of the central area of the hall gives it a
very strong ancient flavor. The main room of
the other half of the duplex is even more
austerely powerful in feeling than that of the
first. Alas, after more than a century of
"baptism" by rain and wind, it has sustained
considerable damage, the back part of the roof
having collapsed. On the rafters where there
once hung a wooden plaque bearing the
inscription "Chin Kuang Fu" (which likewise
has now been removed to prevent theft), there
still remain two plaque supports. One wants
to cry at the sight of a first-rank historic
site such as this, now in such a sorry,
ruined state!

墾號的傳承

金廣福公館自始由擔任總墾首者掌管,為
維護墾業的一貫性與完整性,姜家慣例,
由長子繼承,所以金廣福公館由創建者姜
秀鑾傳給長子薑殿邦,再傳長孫榮華,本
來繼任者應是榮華長子紹猶,可惜紹猶未
成年即過世,所以姜榮華過世後由居長之
次房紹基接任,目前金廣福公館由紹基的
曾孫輩在居住。

Development company heritage

To maintain continuity and coherence of the
k'en hao, ownership of Chin Kuang Fu House
and management responsibilities were passed
down from founder Chiang Hsiu-luan to
successive generations of the Chiang clan —
from Hsiu-luan to eldest son Tien-pang, from
Tien-pang to eldest son Jung-hua. Due to the
untimely death of Jung-hua's only son Shao-yiu
at an early age, Chin Kuang Fu House passed
into the hands of Chiang Shao-Chi (whose name
is engraved on the wooden plaque mentioned
above), likewise a descendant of Hsiu-luan.
To this day, descendants of Shao-chi continue
to reside at Chin Kuang Fu House.

欲造訪金廣福,可從新竹市(中山高新竹交
流道)經光復路接一二二號縣道至竹東接台
三線至北埔;或從竹北市(中山高竹北交流
道)經一二○號縣道,或從北二高下竹林交
流道,一樣接一二○縣道,過竹林大橋至竹
東接台三線至北埔。當然,從頭份、珊珠湖
經台三線北上至北埔亦可,金廣福公館就在
新竹客運北埔站斜對面,假如您想登堂入室
一窺堂奧,目前有困難,由新竹縣政府主導
的修復工程正在進行中,整片屋瓦已被拆除
,上面頂著一座大鋼棚,四週則用木柵圍起
來,金廣福公館大概還要一段時日,才可和
大家重新見面囉!

How to get there

If you wish to visit Chin Kuang Fu House in
Peipu Village, you can take County Route 122
from Hsinchu City, which can be entered from
the Hsinchu interchange of the Chung Shan
Superhighway. Alternately, you can take County
Route 120 from Chupei City, which can be entered
from the Chupei interchange of the Chung Shan
Superhighway. Or you can get onto County Route
120 from the Chulin interchange of the 2nd North
Superhighway, cross the Chulin Bridge to Chutung
and then turn onto Provincial Route 3, which
will take you to Peipu. You can also get there
via Provincial Route 3 from either Toufen or
Shanchuhu. Chin Kuang Fu House is just down the
street from the Hsinchu Bus Co. bus station on
the opposite side of the street.

Unfortunately, however, you may have trouble in
viewing the house because it is in the process
of restoration sponsored by the Hsinchu County
Government. All of the roof tiles have been
removed and the whole compound has been coverd
with a corrogated metal awning and surrounded
by a wooden fence. So it looks like it will be
a spell before we can see it once again with a
new face!

Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
(李美儀編輯/何麗薩翻譯)
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