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《吳三連台灣史料基金會》
《Taiwan News》
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馬偕在台灣
Mackay's legacy to Taiwan

戴寶村/Tai Pao-Tsun
(中央大學歷史研究所教授)
(The author is professor, Central University Graduate School of History)

2001-06-04


Photo portrait of Rev. Mackay.

    6月2日是馬偕(Rev. George Leslie
Mackay 1844-1901)逝世百年紀念日,相關
歷史文物研討展覽以及紀念活動陸續推出,
紀念這位具有無私宗教情懷、將畢生心力貢
獻給台灣的傳教士。誠如他的座右銘──寧
願燒盡,不願腐銹──馬偕燒盡了自己的生
命,但他的精神充分滋養著生前在台灣灑下
的種子,百年來在台灣處處開花結果。本週
「台灣歷史之窗」特別邀請中央大學歷史研
究所教授戴寶村專文介紹馬偕在台灣的傳教
、醫療與教育的歷史事蹟。

June 2 is the commemoration day of the passing
away of Rev. George Leslie Mackay (1844-1901).
In memory of this missionary who, with an
unselfish religious spirit, devoted his life's
energy to helping Taiwan, a retrospective
exhibit of historical documents and a series
of other activities are being conducted. True
to his motto -- "Better to go up in flames than
rust away" -- Rev. Mackay burnt his candle
brightly to the end, yet his spirit continues
to nurture the seeds which he planted, which
over the past century have blossomed and borne
wonderful fruits. For this week's Window on
Taiwan, the Taiwan News has invited Professor
Tai Pao-Tsun of the Central University Graduate
School of History to recount the course of Rev.
Mackay's missionary, medical and educational
work in Taiwan.

立下國外傳教的一生心願

  馬偕祖籍是蘇格蘭,父母親在1830年移
民加拿大,1844年 3月21日馬偕出生於安大
略省牛津郡佐拉(Zorra )地方。他從當地
的Woodstock小學畢業後進入多倫多的
Omemee師範學校就讀,然後在Maplewoold及
Maitlandville 地方的小學教書。他曾聽過
英國傳教士William C. Burns演講到中國傳
教的經歷,激發他想到外國傳教的心願,於
是進入多倫多的Knox神學院讀書,接著再前
往美國普林斯頓神學院就讀。1870年學成返
鄉實習傳道數月,再到蘇格蘭愛丁堡修習研
究課程。1871年加拿大長老教會總會接受馬
偕海外佈道之申請,並指定中國為其宣教服
務地區。

Roots of Mackay's missionary zeal

Rev. George Leslie Mackay was born of Scottish
parents who emigrated to Canada in 1830. He
was born on March 21, 1844 in Zorra, Oxford
Prefecture, Ontario. After graduating from
that town's Woodstock Primary School, he
enrolled in Toronto's Omemee Teacher's College,
upon graduation from which he taught at the
Maplewood and Maitlandville primary schools. A
speech given by missionary William C. Burns
about his experience as a missionary in China
inspired in Mackay an enthusiasm to do
missionary work abroad. Consequently, he
entered the Knox Theological Seminary in
Toronto, after which he continued his studies
at the Princeton Theological Seminary in
America. After completion of his studies there
in 1870, he returned to Canada for several
months to perform a missionary internship,
following which he went to Edinburgh, Scotland
to pursue graduate studies. In 1871 the head
office of the Presbyterian Church in Canada
approved his application to serve overseas as a
missionary and designated China as his mission
territory.

Mackay and students pulling teeth.

淡水傳教的草創時期

1871年10月馬偕離開家鄉到美國舊金山搭乘
America 號輪船經日本、香港、廣州、汕頭
等地,並前來台灣旅行。1872年初早先已在
南台灣傳教的英格蘭長老教會牧師李庥(
Rev. Hugh Ritchie)陪他由高雄乘船北上
。1860年清帝國開放基隆、淡水、安平、高
雄四港口供外國經商貿易。1872年3月9日馬
偕抵達淡水,此時淡水的商務已相當繁榮,
河口山嶺的優美景色讓他堅定選擇淡水作為
宣教基地,並且終生奉獻台灣。

Tamsui mission - early period

In October of 1871, Mackay left his
homeland and proceeded to San Francisco,
where he boarded the S.S. America and came
to Taiwan via Japan, Hong Kong, Canton,
and Swatow. In early 1872 he took passage
on a boat from Kaohsiung to northern
Taiwan, accompanied by Rev. Hugh Ritchie,
a missionary of the Presbyterian Church
of England who had been serving in
southern Taiwan. The Ch'ing Dynasty
government had in 1860 opened up the four
seaports of Keelung, Tamsui, Anping and
Kaohsiung to foreign trade, so by 1872,
foreign trade was already flourishing in
Tamsui. When Mackay arrived there on
March 9, the sight of the beautiful
mountains bordering on the river mouth
inspired him to make Tamsui his
missionary base and to devote his life
to Taiwan.

馬偕初到淡水除面對生活條件的不便,還有
語言文化的隔閡,他原先學習的北京官話在
台灣派不上用場,於是向牧童學習台語,五
個月後他就可以用台語傳道。他一面傳教設
立教會,一方面考慮到台灣的氣候、語言風
俗、經濟等因素,認為訓練本地人成為傳教
士是一重要的工作,於是在七年間供在大甲
溪以北地區設立了20間教會,並培養22個本
地傳教師。

In the days immediately following his
arrival, besides having to adjust to various
other inconveniences, Mackay faced the
problems of language and cultural gaps, the
Mandarin language which he had studied
proving useless for his work in Taiwan. So
he studied Taiwanese with shepherd youths
and 5 months later was able to begin using
Taiwanese to preach the gospel. Apart from
establishing a church for his personal
missionary work, he recognized that, in
consideration of climatic, language,
economic and other factors in Taiwan, the
training of local missionaries was of crucial
importance. Consequently, within a 7-year
period, he set up 20 churches in the region
north of Ta Cha Hsi and cultivated 22 natives
to become missionaries.

馬偕既已決定終生在台灣傳教,1878年與五
股坑的張聰明(英文名Minnie 1860-1925)
結婚,生有二女瑪連(Mary Ellen 1879-
1959)及以利(Bella 1880-1970),一子
叡廉(George William 1882-1969)。

Having already decided to devote his life
to missionary work in Taiwan, in 1878 he
married Chang Tsung-Ming (Minnie, 1860-1925)
of Wu Ku Keng, with whom he had two
daughters, Ma-Lien (Mary Ellen, 1879-1959)
and I-Li (Bella, 1880-1970), and one son,
Jui-Lien (George William 1882-1969).

The old church in Huwei (former
name of Tamsui), a major landmark
in Tamsui since its renovation in
1932

以耐心與勇氣完成傳教使命

馬偕在台灣竭盡心力從事宣教活動,也曾
遭遇相當大的阻礙,如他在艋舺要租屋傳
教甚至發生房屋被拆之事,在三峽有人擲
石反對他來傳教,不過他都靠著耐心勇氣
及替民眾醫病來爭取信徒。1883年以後他
將傳教重心轉移至東部地區,在宜蘭平原
設立了11座教堂,也曾前往花蓮和離島地
區,宜蘭地區的噶瑪蘭(Kavalan )平埔
族人有些人甚至以馬偕的「偕」作為他們
的漢姓,總計馬偕在台三十年間供設立60
間教會。1872年在淡水設立第一座教會的
地點在1932年改建一座哥德式教堂,成為
淡水美麗的建築物之一,旁邊的街道被命
名為「馬偕街」、「真理街」,馬偕街口
也塑建馬偕的頭像,成為馬偕傳教歷史的
重要史蹟。

Mission accomplished through patience and
courage

Mackay carried out his missionary work with
vigor despite coming up against considerable
obstacles, as when a building he had rented
in Mengchia for his missionary activities was
destroyed, or when he was stoned in Sanhsia
by people opposed to such activities. Through
it all, he won converts by dint of his
patience and courage in combination with
medical services to the common people. In
1883 he toured eastern Taiwan, where he
established 11 churches on the Ilan plain,
moving on to Hualien and, later, visiting
offshore islands. Some Kavalan Pingpu
tribespeople even adopted the character Chieh
in Mackay's Chinese surname, Ma Chieh, as
their Chinese surnames. In all, Mackay
established 60 churches in Taiwan. In 1932,
the first church built by Mackay in Tamsui in
1872 was rebuilt in the style of Goethe, which
has become one of Tamsui's treasured
architectural landmarks. The adjacent streets
have been named Ma Chieh Street and Chenli
(Truth) Street, and at the corner of Ma Chieh
street stands a sculpture of Mackay's head,
which has become one of the important historical
relics in witness of his missionary legacy.

醫療上的貢獻

馬偕本人雖非真正的醫生,但受過醫學訓練
,在淡水傳教時就幫人治病服務民眾,也藉
機傳播福音,他利用奎寧治療瘧疾,或替有
牙疾的人拔牙,解除民眾的病苦,據他自述
說在台二十多年當中幫人拔了二萬一千多顆
牙齒,確實讓那些受牙痛折磨的人「沒齒難
忘」恩情。

Contributions to medical care

Although formally Mackay wasn't a physician, he
had received medical training and provided
medical care for the sick while in Tamsui,
taking the opportunity to preach the gospel at
the same time. He lightened people's suffering,
for example, by employing quinine to cure
malaria, or by pulling the teeth of those with
dental maladies. By his own count, he pulled
21,000 teeth over 20-odd years, leaving those
who had previously been tortured by toothache
with a "tooth missing, hard to forget" sense
of grateful remembrance.

Mackay family portrait in
traditional Chinese garb.

1879年一位底特律市的馬偕夫人捐款三千元
,支助他在淡水設立「偕醫館」「The
Mackay Hospital」,一些洋行的醫生也協
助醫療事務,造福當地民眾。尤其1884-85
年間法國軍隊攻打淡水,不少受傷的士兵與
民眾即時獲得醫治而保住性命,事後台灣巡
撫劉銘傳特別頒給賞狀致謝並捐款給醫館。
1912年為紀念馬偕宣教40週年並擴大醫療服
務,在台北雙連新建醫院,就是今之「馬偕
紀念醫院」的起源,1969年另在竹圍設立分
院,1970年在關渡設立護理學校,馬偕當年
將傳教與醫療相結合的作法,促成了台灣現
代化醫學的發展。

In 1879 a Detroit woman, also surnamed Mackay,
donated US$ 3,000 to support the construction
of the Mackay Hospital in Tamsui, where some
Western doctors in the employ of foreign
businesses also contributed their medical
expertise to serving the common people. Among
those who particularly benefited were soldiers
and civilians wounded during attacks upon
Tamsui by the French military in 1884-1885, who
owed their lives to the medical care received
at Mackay Hospital. Afterward, the Governor of
Taiwan, Liu Ming-Chuan presented the hospital
with a reward as a token of thanks in addition
to making a personal donation. 1912 marked not
only the 40th anniversary of Mackay's mission
in Taiwan but the construction of a new hospital
in the Shuanglien district of Taipei, which was
the inauguration of what came to be the Mackay
Memorial Hospital of today. In 1969 a branch
hospital was established in the Chuwei area, and
in 1970 a school of nursing was established in
the Kuantu area. Thus it is that Mackay's
integration of missionary work with medical
services spurred the development of modern-day
medicine in Taiwan.

教育上的貢獻

馬偕在台灣傳教相當重視培養本地人成為宣
教人才,傳教過程也是在教育學生,至1880
年所教育出來的22個學生到各地去傳教或是
主持教堂事務。1880年他返回加拿大述職,
報告在台灣的宣教工作,故鄉牛津郡的居民
募捐了6215元,讓他帶回台灣興建學校。馬
偕返回淡水後在砲台埔設計施工興建「牛津
學堂」(Oxford College),1882年書院落
成,取名為「理學堂大書院」,同年九月招
生,有18人入學。學校教授科目包括聖經與
神學之外還有地理、地質、動物、植物、礦
物、醫學、歷史等等,除了教室上課還有野
外考察、醫館實習,教學多元活潑,畢業後
就到各地的教會服務。

Contributions to education

In his emphasis on cultivating local talent
to carry on religious work, his missionary
activities necessarily included educating
students. The 22 students trained by 1880 were
sent to locales all over Taiwan to take up
missionary posts or serve as church pastors.
When in 1880 Mackay returned to Canada to
report on his missionary work, residents of
his Oxford Prefecture homeland donated US$
6,215 dollars to enable him to build a school
after returning to Taiwan. Upon his return to
Tamsui, he began construction of Oxford
College on the site of Paotaipu or "Cannon
Platform Plain." When completed in 1882, it
was given the Chinese name 理學堂大書院,
directly translatable as Hall of Truth Study
Academy. Classes began in September of that
year with an initial enrollment of 18
students. In addition to Bible studies and
theology, the subjects taught at the school
included geography, geology, zoology, botany,
mineralogy, medicine, history, etc. In
addition to classroom lessons, the school's
program included nature field trips and
medical clinic internship, making for a broad
and lively learning experience. Upon
graduation students would go and serve at
churches all over Taiwan.

開啟女子教育之先

理學堂大書院在1909年遷到台北,改為台灣
神學校。馬偕看到當時台灣社會重男輕女,
女性幾乎都是文盲,於是在1883年設立「淡
水女學堂」,開啟女子教育之先,1916年淡
水女學校改為淡水高等女學校,再改為私立
淡水女學校,1956年併入淡江中學。1965年
長老教會在理學堂大書院舊址創設淡水工商
管理專校,現已改制為四年制的大學,名為
「淡水真理大學」,反映了其教會背景。

Pioneering women's education

In 1909, Oxford College moved to Taipei, where
its name was changed to the Taiwan Theological
Seminary. In response to that era's the
favoritism of men over women and the fact that
nearly all women were illiterate, Mackay
established the Tamsui Women's Academy in 1883,
the first school for women in Taiwan. In 1916
it was renamed Tamsui High School for Women,
and was later changed to Private Tamsui School
for Women. In 1956 it was incorporated as part
of Tamkang Private High School. In 1965, at
the site of the original Oxford College, the
Presbyterian Church set up Tamsui Oxford
College (In Chinese: Tamsui Technical and
Commercial College), which has now become a
4-year university called Aletheia University,
reflecting its religious background.

寧願燒盡,不願腐銹

馬偕自1872年抵達淡水,至1901年6月2日因
癌症去世總共近三十年之中,除兩次短暫返
回加拿大述職外,將所有心力投注於長老教
會的宣教、醫療、教育,他所傳播的新文化
已超越純宗教層次,對台灣近代文化發展有
深刻影響,尤其它來到台灣就立志終生奉獻
給衷愛的台灣,更以「寧願燒盡,不願腐銹
」作為行事的座右銘,馬偕夫婦在逝世之後
,都安眠在淡江中學校園內,而他所留下的
教會、醫院、學校的事功在台灣持續流傳,
成為台灣歷史的一部份。

Better to go up in flames than rust away

During the nearly 30 years from his arrival in
Tamsui in 1872 until his death from cancer on
June 2, 1872, except for 2 trips back to Canada
to report on his work, Mackay devoted his
entire time and energy to the Presbyterian
Church's missionary, medical and educational
activities. The new culture which he
disseminated has gone beyond purely religious
content, leaving a profound legacy for
Taiwan's modern cultural development,
especially in the example he set by his
determination to devote himself to his beloved
Taiwan and, in all of his actions, adhering to
the motto "Better to go up in flames out than
rust away." Though the Mackay couple have now
passed away and rest in peace on the campus of
Tamkang Private High School, the fruit of their
labors to establish churches, hospitals and
schools lives on and has become a part of
Taiwan's history.

Compiled and edited by Tina Lee/Translated by James Decker
籌備編輯李美儀/英文翻譯曹篤明

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