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五月五日端午節
Dragon Boat Festival

戴寶村/Tai Pao-Tsun
(中央大學歷史系教授)
(Professor, History Department, National Central University)

2001-06-25


農曆五月五日的端午節與「清明節」、「中
秋節」並列為台灣三大節慶,每年政府與民
間皆舉辦相關民俗活動與製作應景食品將這
個節日點綴地十分熱鬧。然而雖然有許多人
吃粽子、觀賞龍舟賽,但大部分人對於端午
節的歷史今昔,除了戰國時代屈原投江的故
事以外,卻都一知半解。因此本週台灣歷史
之窗特別邀請中央大學歷史系副教授戴寶村
執筆,細說端午節流傳的幾個典故與相關的
民俗慶典活動。


The Dragon Boat Festival on the fifth day of the
fifth month in Taiwan's lunar calendar, the Tomb
Sweeping Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival are
Taiwan's three biggest festivals. Every year, the
government and ordinary people alike hold folk
activities and eat special festival foods to make
these days special and lively. However, although
many people will eat zongzi and watch dragon boat
racing, most of us know little about the historical
background of this festival apart from the story of
Qu Yuan throwing himself into the river back in the
Warring States period. That's why Taiwan News has
this week invited Tai Pao-tsun, professor from the
history department at National Central University,
to write about our weekly feature, Window on Taiwan,
on the historical allusions connected with the Dragon
Boat Festival, and the related folk festivities and
activities .

屈原宮裡的水仙尊王
The Narcissus King in the Qu Yuan Temple

端午節由來的幾個傳說

台灣農曆五月五日稱作「五日節」或「端午
節」,這段時間正值春夏節氣交替之際,民
間以五月為毒月,為了驅邪避毒保健平安而
產生一些民間風俗。五月節的由來有數種傳
說,一是源自紀念中國古代投水自殺的楚國
詩人屈原,用竹葉包紮米飯為粽子投入水中
祭拜他而來;一是為紀念中國東漢時代的孝
女曹娥,因他父親溺江而亡,曹娥沿江號哭
尋覓父屍達十七日而不得,遂投江自殺,五
天之後適為五月五日,父女相擁的屍體浮出
水面,民眾感念其孝行而祭之;一為中國春
秋時代的吳國名臣伍子胥幫助吳國攻打越國
大勝,他主戰以滅越國,吳王不聽反命他自
殺,屍體在五月五日被投入江中,後人乃在
這天紀念伍子胥。這些傳說還是以屈原的故
事流傳比較廣,台北市士林區的洲美裡就有
一座屈原宮主祀屈原,端午節前後前往祭拜
的信徒相當多。總之五日節與江河有密切關
係,划龍舟比賽成為最重要的水上活動,包
粽子是應節的食物,還有一些驅邪求福的行
事,這一天也是詩人節,傳統詩人會再在這
天集會吟詩慶祝,是台灣一年當中相當熱鬧
的節日。

Some legends about the origins of the Dragon Boat Festival

The fifth day of the fifth month of Taiwan's lunar
calendar is the "Festival of the Fifth" or "Dragon
Boat Festival." This period is the time when spring
weather is replaced by that of summer, and the fifth
month is often called "poison month," and several
folk customs have arisen to drive out evil spirits,
keep poison at bay and stay healthy and safe. There
are numerous stories about the origin of the Fifth
Month Festival. One says that it commemorates Qu
Yuan, the poet from the state of Chu who committed
suicide by drowning in ancient China, and people
offer sacrifices to him by plunging zongzi made
of rice wrapped in bamboo leaves into water;
another says that it commemorates the filial
daughter, Cao E, from the Eastern Han dynasty.
Because her father had drowned in a river, Cao E
walked along the river's edge for 17 days, crying
her eyes out and looking for her father's body,
but she never found it, and so she threw herself
into the river and drowned herself. After five
days, on the fifth day of the fifth month, the
bodies of father and daughter came to the surface,
intertwined, and people were so moved by her filial
behavior that they memorialized her by making
sacrifices to her. Yet another story tells that in
the Spring and Autumn period in China [722 to 481
B.C.], in the state of Wu, the famous courtier,
Wu Zixu, helped the state of Wu to attack and win
a great victory over the state of Yue. He
advocated war to destroy Yue, but the king of Wu
did not heed him, but instead ordered him to
commit suicide, and on the fifth day of the fifth
month, his body was thrown into the river. Later
on, people commemorated Wu Zixu on this day.
Among these legends, the story of Qu Yuan is he
most widely known. In the Chou Mei ward of Shihlin
District, Taipei City, there is a temple dedicated
to Qu Yuan, and around the Dragon Boat Festival,
many devotees come to the temple to offer sacrifices
to Qu Yuan. In conclusion, the festival of the Fifth
Day is closely tied up with rivers, and dragon boat
races have become the most important water-related
activity, while zongzi is the food of choice for
the festival, and there are also some luck-seeking
behaviors and activities to ward away evil spirits.
This day is also a festival for poets, and
traditionally, poets gather together on this day to
recite poems and celebrate. It's a very vibrant and
busy festival in Taiwan's calendar.

虎形香包
Tiger-shaped fragrant sachet

端午節的民俗活動

五月五日為了驅邪避毒,因此會在家中門口
懸掛菖蒲、艾草、榕樹枝,希望驅逐邪魔使
身體健康。喝雄黃酒也可避邪,或將雄黃撒
在房子四周以驅蟲。父母會製作香包內裝香
料,讓兒童懸掛可保佑子女平安成長,還有
讓兒童玩豎雞蛋的遊戲。另外又有傳說在五
月五日中午中午十二點所取的「午時水」可
以久放不變味,還可以治百病的說法,其中
以大甲鐵砧山上的「劍井」的午時水最有名
。鐵砧山劍井的傳說源自鄭成功領軍北上行
軍此地,缺水可供部隊飲用,於是鄭成功拔
劍插入地下,並祝禱祈求湧出泉水,果然地
下泉水噴湧,解除軍隊渴旱的危機,所以現
在鐵砧上有劍井,而且湧泉不絕,據說當天
也正是端午節,所以附近民眾會在五日節中
五前往求取午時水,也是中部地區特別有趣
的民俗活動。


Folk activities of the Dragon Boat Festival

On the fifth day of the fifth month, in order to ward
off evil spirits, people hang branches of moxa,
calamus and banyan around the doors of their homes,
in the hope that this will drive away evil spirits
and keep everyone healthy. Drinking realgar wine can
also drive away the evil spirits, as can sprinkling
realgar in all four corners of the house to get rid
of insects. Parents may make scented sachets stuffed
with fragrant material and hang these around their
children's necks to protect their children and bless
them with a safe passage into adulthood, and also
organize games where children must try to balance an
egg on its end. It's also said that water drawn at
12 noon on the fifth day of the fifth month will
stay fresh for longer than usual, and can also be
used to treat many illnesses. Water drawn at noon
from the "Sword Well" at Tie Chen Hill ("Anvil Hill"),
Tachia (Taichung County) is the most famous. The story
of the Sword Well at Tie Chen Shan says that when
Koxinga was leading his army north, they ran out of
water here, and Koxinga pulled out his sword and
plunged it into the ground, and prayed for water to
spring forth. And of course he hit an underground
source of water which gushed out, and rescued his
troops from the danger of dehydration. That's why
the Sword Well is there on Tie Chen Hill, and the
water has never dried up. Legend has it that that
day was the day of the Dragon Boat Festival, so the
local people go there to draw water at noon on the
fifth day of the fifth month, and it's one of the
particularly interesting folk activities of central
Taiwan.

粽子
Zongzi


粽子的演變與象徵意涵

端午節應時的食品是粽子,其由來是說屈原
自殺以後,有人遇到屈原的亡魂,亡魂說:
他雖然投江而亡,但魂魄未死,人們投到江
中的食物,大多被魚類所吃,希望往後將米
飯裝在竹桶中,投到江中他就可以吃得到,
後來再演變為用竹葉包粽子,丟入水中祭拜
屈原,這就是粽子的由來。台灣的粽子大致
分為鹼粽和鹹粽兩種口味,又有台灣式、廣
東式、江浙式等各種形式的不同,代表台灣
食物豐富多元的特色。同時這段時間也接近
各級學校畢業升學考試之際,包粽子也有考
試「包中」(上榜)之意,不只是食物還有
祈求考試成功的象徵涵意。

The evolution and symbolic meaning of zongzi

The seasonal food for the Dragon Boat Festival is
zongzi, the origins of which are to be found with
Qu Yuan. After his suicide, somebody ran into his
ghost, which said that although he had drowned in
the river, his soul did not die, and the food people
threw into the river was mostly eaten by the fish,
and he would like people to put rice in bamboo tubs
from now on, so that he could eat it. Later on, the
custom changed and the food became zongzi wrapped up
in bamboo leaves, which were tossed into the water as
offerings to Qu Yuan. Zongzi in Taiwan can be divided
into two flavors: salty and alkaline. There are many
different regional styles, such as Taiwanese,
Guangdong and Zhejiang, which show the rich variety
of food to be found in Taiwan. This time of year is
also close to graduations and entrance exams for all
levels of schools, and the expression "bao zongzi"
(wrapping up zongzi) can have the meaning of "bao
zhong" which means to pass one's exams, so the
zongzi is not just food but also has a symbolic
meaning of praying for examination success.

天中戲水(宮廷中的龍舟競賽)/宋 李嵩
Playing in the heavenly waters
(dragon boat racing at the imperial court)
/ Song Dynasty, Li Song

端午節的水上活動--划龍舟


端午節的重頭戲是「划龍舟」,其傳說也是
與屈原有關,據說屈原自殺以後人們划船找
屈原時,曾看見有龍在江上飛騰,所以日後
的搜索船的船頭就做成龍頭,船尾就做成龍
尾,船身畫上龍麟,成為所謂的龍舟。其實
這些都是傳言附會之說,划船比賽是華南到
東南亞地區,各個民族流行的水上活動。端
午節這天台灣各地從宜蘭、基隆、台北、鹿
港、台南、高雄等各地都會舉行盛大的劃龍
舟比賽,也是一年一度重要的水上活動比賽
;台灣是一個海島國家,划船比賽的確是一
值得大力推廣的活動。

Activities on the water for the Dragon Boat
Festival: dragon boat racing

The most important activity of the Dragon Boat
Festival is the dragon boat racing. According to
legend, this too is connected with the story of Qu
Yuan. It's said that after Qu Yuan killed himself,
people paddled boats looking for him, and saw a
dragon flying over the river. From that time on,
dragon heads were carved onto the prows of search
boats, and dragon tails at the other end, with
dragon's scales painted along the length of the
boat, so that they became what were called "dragon
boats." Actually these are all myths, and the dragon
boat races were a traditional folk waterways activity
in Southern China and Southeast Asia. On the day of
the Dragon Boat Festival, grand dragon boat races
will be held all over Taiwan, in Ilan, Keelung,
Taipei, Lukang, Tainan and Kaohsiung, a major
annual water activity. Taiwan is an island nation,
and the dragon boat races are certainly activities
well worth promoting.

台北市的龍舟競賽規模盛大,淡水河上游的
新店隊和下游關渡地區的隊伍勢均力敵,長
期對抗互有勝負,台北龍舟賽現在更發展為
國際性的比賽,龍舟競賽過去都是在淡水河
舉行,經常配合演藝活動或進行電視實況轉
播,增添節慶的氣氛。台北縣萬里鄉甚至在
海上舉行划龍舟比賽,競賽過程緊張精彩。
宜蘭縣焦溪鄉二龍村的龍舟賽則是因其特殊
的傳統形式而受到重視,甚至被交通部觀光
局指定為重點觀光活動。

Taipei City holds dragon boat races on a grand scale,
and the Hsintien team from upstream on the Tamshui
river is well-matched with the team from downstream
Kuantu. They compete for a long time, and both have
victories and defeats. The Taipei dragon boat racing
has now developed into an international competition.
In the past, all the races were held on the Tamshui
river, and there are often performance activities or
live TV broadcasts being carried out at the same time,
adding to the festival atmosphere. At Wanli Township
in Taipei County, dragon boat races are even held in
the sea, on a nerve-wracking and wonderful course.
The dragon boat races at Er Lung Village, in Chiaohsi
Township, Ilan County, are famous for their special
traditions, and are even noted by the Tourism Bureau
as a tourist attraction.

二龍村的龍舟賽一向只有兩隊參加,分別是
上二龍村的淇武蘭隊和下二龍村的洲子尾隊
,淇武蘭的龍舟是以綠色為底色,洲子尾的
龍舟是以紅色為底色,兩隊在二龍溪反覆進
行數十次比賽,村民輪番上陣值到黃昏時刻
,最後在以兩隊勝負的次數多寡決定輸贏。
這風俗據說是源起自平埔族原住民噶瑪蘭人
祭祀河川的禮俗,後來漢人大量進入宜蘭開
墾後,逐漸轉變為划船競賽。

The dragon boat races at Er Lung Village have always
been held between two teams only, the Chiwulan team
from upper Er Lung, and the Choutzuwei team from
lower Er Lung. The Chiwulan dragon boat has a
green background, and the Choutzuwei dragon boat
has a red background. The two teams race up and
down the Er Lung river dozens of times, and the
villagers take it in turns to participate until
the early evening, and the winner is finally
calculated from the number of victories and
defeats by both teams. This custom is said to
come from the river-worshipping ceremony of the
Kavalan people, who are one of the Aboriginal
Pingpu tribes, and when Han Chinese began to
develop and exploit the land of Ilan in large
numbers, this ceremony gradually turned into a
dragon boat race.

驅逐病疫的活動--消逝的石戰風俗


端午節適逢春夏交替,過去台灣傳染病盛行
,所以有舉行驅逐病疫祈求健康的儀式,民
間還有流傳在端午節扔擲石塊互鬥,藉著激
烈運動流汗排熱而免除疾病的行為。依據約
七十年前日本人的調查,今屏東縣佳冬、林
邊、新埤、枋寮鄉村地區民眾,在農曆五月
五日時,組成對抗團體,在田野或草地互扔
擲石塊戰鬥,男子負責丟擲石頭,女子負責
收集石塊以供戰鬥,雙方將石塊丟擲對方,
但不近身搏鬥,投石越多越好,只要敵方退
卻就算勝利,勝者可以取用敗方的食物佳餚
,敗方若被俘遭羞辱或處罰也不可以反抗。
據說有一次瘧疾流行,村民參與石戰,激烈
運動流汗排熱,竟然使傳染病得以痊癒,於
是石戰風氣更為盛行。不過偶爾還是會發生
人員受傷,或是破壞他人房屋、財物之事情
,日本人將其視為影響治安的陋習加以取締
,或是藉著舉辦運動會轉移競爭行為,這種
石戰的風俗從此逐漸消失。

Activities to ward off sickness: the vanished custom of
rock battles

The Dragon Boat Festival marks the end of spring and
the beginning of summer, and in the past, Taiwan was
rife with infectious diseases, and so ceremonies
would be carried out to ward off sickness and pray
for health. There still exist folk customs where
during the Dragon Boat Festival, people would fight
each other by throwing rocks, and thanks to the
vigorous exercise, the participants would sweat
heavily and thus avoid disease. This was recorded by
the Japanese about 70 years ago: people in the area
which is now the Pingtung villages of Chiatung,
Linpien, Shinpi and Fangliao would group together on
the fifth day of the fifth month and go out into the
fields or the meadows, and fight by throwing stones
at one another. The men's job was to throw the
stones, and the women's job was to collect stones
for the fights. Each side threw stones at the other,
but they didn't come into physical contact, and the
more stones they threw, the better, and the side
which held out the longest was the winner, and was
allowed to eat delicious dishes prepared by the
losing side. If the losing side was taken captive
and humiliated, or punished, they were not allowed
to resist. It is said that one time, malaria was
going around, and when the villagers participated
in the rock fight, their sweating from the vigorous
exercise rid their bodies of fever, and they
actually made a full recovery from this infectious
disease, upon which the practice of rock battles
became even more prevalent. However, it would
occasionally happen that someone got hurt, or
damaged another's house or property, and the
Japanese saw this as an undesirable activity which
had a detrimental effect on public order, and
enforced a ban on it. Or it may be that the sport
had a habit of turning into fights. Anyway, these
rock fights gradually began to die out during the
Japanese Occupation.

照片提供:
國立故宮博物院
雄獅圖書股份有限公司
Compiled and edited by Tina Lee/Translated by James Decker
編輯李美儀/英文翻譯曹篤明
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