會址:104台北市南京東路三段215號10樓
電話:02-27122836 傳真:02-27174593

《回首頁》
《回台灣之窗》
《吳三連台灣史料基金會》
《Taiwan News》
 ●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●



台灣歷史上的地震
Earthquakes in Taiwan's history

李泰翰/Lee Tai-Han
2001-10-01


Kuangfu Middle School's north classroom partially
collapsed following the 921 earthquake

地震象徵人與土地間的另一種對話,在台灣
歷史中不斷地與居住在這塊土地上的住民及
統治者作不同程度地接觸。本週「台灣歷史
之窗」特別邀請中央大學歷史系研究生李泰
翰執筆,藉由回顧台灣歷史上一次次地動山
搖的地震災難,讓讀者從災難史的脈絡瞭解
台灣的歷史。


Earthquakes symbolize a kind of dialogue between man and
earth, and in Taiwan's history there has been a continual
contact sustained to different extents with the inhabitants
of this land and their rulers. This week's Window on Taiwan
is written by Lee Tai-Han, graduate student in history at
National Central University. Lee takes a look at the
repeated earthquakes in Taiwan's history.


九二一集集大地震

從地震的命名來看,不難發現其不同於過去
常以洋名稱呼的颱風,大多以發生日期或距
離震央最近的鄉鎮地點為名。九二一集集大
地震發生至今已有兩年,兩年來人們逐漸從
這場夢魘中醒來,在這場大災難之後,重新
喚起人們對這塊土地的注意,並檢討過去對
於地震知識累積及傳承的重要性。這場發生
於1999年9月21日凌晨1時47分芮氏規模達7.3
級的大地震,造成戰後罕見的重大損失。在
人員傷亡方面,計有2412人死亡,11305人受
傷;在房屋方面全倒者有26831棟,半倒者有
24495棟。在驚天動地之後,除了立即受到地
震災難的住民剎那間面臨震慟外,緊隨而來
的停水、停電、道路中斷所帶來的不便及不
安,相信是許多人共同的記憶。


The huge 921 earthquake

It is not difficult to discern that, unlike typhoons,
which until recently have often been given Western names,
earthquakes are mostly named after the date of the
occurrence, or the town or county nearest the epicenter.
The 921 earthquake occurred two years ago, and two years
on, people are gradually walking up from this nightmare.
In the immediate wake of the earthquake, people were
newly made aware of this land that we live on, and
examined the importance of past accumulated wisdom and
tradition regarding earthquakes. The quake occurred at
1:47 a.m. on September 21, 1999, and measured 7.3 on the
Richter scale. It created major losses such as had rarely
been seen since the war. In terms of human loss, 2412
people lost their lives, 11,305 were injured. 26,831
homes were completely destroyed, another 24,495 were
partially destroyed. In addition to those who were
immediately affected by the earthquake at the instant
it occurred, many others were soon affected by the
dangers and inconveniences that came when power and
water supplies were cut off and roads were blocked or
destroyed: these are all things that will surely stay
in our collective memory.


「土埆地震」

若將時間往前回溯,日治時代傷亡最慘重的
地震災害發生在1935年4月21日,正是日本統
治台灣的四十週年,清晨6時2分16秒強烈的
地震重創當時新竹、台中二州,規模 7.1級
的大地震曾造成3422人死亡,11833人受傷,
損毀房舍高達6萬棟以上。此次地震死傷如此
嚴重,主要與當時台灣人居住的「土埆厝」
有關,厚重的土埆常因雨水浸蝕而軟化瓦解
,不但不耐震,同時更加重了災情,因此當
時的日本學者佐野利器,便將此次地震稱之
為「土埆地震」。



The "adobe earthquake"

If we look back in time to the Japanese occupation, the
earthquake which caused the greatest loss of life
occurred on April 21, 1935, on the fortieth anniversary
of Japanese rule in Taiwan. At 6:02:16 a.m. a violent
earthquake inflicted heavy losses on the two prefectures,
as they then were, of Hsinchu and Taichung. It measured
7.1 on the Richter scale and killed 3,422 people. Another
11,833 were injured, and over 60,000 homes were destroyed.
The reason why this earthquake inflicted so serious a loss
of life was closely connected to the fact that many
Taiwanese people built their homes out of adobe. The
thick adobes softened and crumbled when soaked through
with rain water, and not only could it not stand up to
earthquakes, it actually intensified the effects of the
disaster, which is why contemporary Japanese scholar Sano
Liki called this earthquake "the adobe earthquake."


After the 921 earthquake, Kuangfu Middle School in
Wufeng Township, Taichung County decided to preserve
this earthquake damage

有關地震的各種解釋與傳說

時間再往前推,在清代統治下的台灣,對於
地震發生的科學性原因尚不瞭解,因此每當
有地震發生之際,便常試圖予以各種解釋,
大致來說對地震的解釋可分為幾種型態。第
一類認為與統治有關:相信地震發生是國家
統治良寙及治台失當的指標;第二類則與自
然地理天文有關:如大風雨後、打雷及彗星
出現等都有可能引起地震,同時台灣在來自
內陸的人看來孤懸海外,地土浮鬆,加上地
形環海容易搖盪的猜測,認為地震容易發生
,而當植物出現異象時譬如「刺桐不開花」
也是地震發生前的一個徵兆;第三類認為有
週期性的關連:如歲逢「庚子」、「辛丑」
地震容易出現;第四類則結合傳說:如巨鱉
翻身、地底火山等傳說比比皆是,台灣在當
時被視為「海外之地」,因此也常被認為災
異多是件正常的事;第五類結合歷史上的兵
災:藉由台灣歷史上諸如荷蘭為鄭成功所敗
、鄭克塽降清、朱一貴民變起兵時,都曾發
生大地震,故加以附會之。此外,地震還代
表上天對人的賞罰,賞如官員殉節天地動容
、罰如劣生宿妓慘遭壓斃,皆為地震生成的
原因之一。而對於地震的發生成因運用科學
儀器來觀察,在台灣直至日本治台兩年後(
1897年)才開始。

Various interpretations and traditions regarding
earthquakes
Going even further back in time, in Qing-governed
Taiwan, the scientific causes of earthquakes were not
yet understood, and so each time an earthquake occurred,
people would try to give various interpretations, roughly
speaking, we can split these interpretations of
earthquakes into several different types. The first type
of interpretation was that earthquakes were connected to
government: people believed that the occurrence of
earthquakes indicated whether or not the country was
well ruled, or if Taiwan was being administrated
inappropriately. The second type had to do with natural
geography and astronomy: after a storm, the appearance
of thunder and comets could bring on an earthquake, and
people from the mainland of China viewed this lonely
outpost, this land floating out at sea, and weren't
surprised that it was easy for earthquakes to happen
in such a place. When plants showed strange signs such
as "coral bean trees not coming into flower", this too
was an omen heralding an earthquake. The third kind was
thought to be to do with cycles, such as certain years
in the lunar 60-year cycle, and it was thought that
earthquakes could easily occur at these times. The
fourth kind was linked to legend: if a giant turtle
flipped over, or there was a volcanic eruption, or
something of this kind, then this would be a portent
of an earthquake. Taiwan was at this time seen as
"somewhere overseas", and so it was often thought
disasters were a commonplace even. The fifth kind
was linked to historic military disasters: in Taiwan's
history, when, for example, the Dutch were defeated by
Koxinga, when Cheng Ke-shuang surrendered to the Qing,
when Chu Yit-gui's popular uprising broke out, a major
earthquake occurred on each occasion, so people drew
the wrong conclusions. Earthquakes represented heaven's
rewards and punishments to mortals, rewards if an
official died for the sake of honor, as a sign that
heaven was visibly moved, and a punishment if some
young scholar spent the night with a prostitute and
was then crushed to death, all of these were factors
behind earthquakes. The use of scientific machinery
to investigate the cause of earthquakes did not begin
until two years into the Japanese occupation of
Taiwan (1897).

發生於清代的大地震

我們對於清代地震的瞭解,多僅限於遺留下
來的文獻或檔案,從這些記載中可以得知,
在清代的地震規模之大,受創之劇,實不亞
於日治時期與戰後的兩大地震。倒如在建築
物倒塌方面,清代一次嘉義的大地震居然造
成了當時嘉義縣城鄉坍塌房舍高達1萬4千4百
26間,同時在彰化縣也造成9千7百23間房舍
在這次災難中倒塌。在人員的傷亡方面,造
成數以百計或千計死亡人數的地震比比皆是
,如道光28年的地震(1848年)嘉義、彰化
地區便有千人左右慘遭壓斃。尤甚者,地震
災難對於人們心靈的創傷更是難以彌補撫平
。在大地震來襲時,先民不但直接面對天人
永隔的巨創,同時在無法精確地獲知地震發
生原因,常造成謠言漫佈市街。常見的傳言
如食物、飲水被下毒,外來奸匪將趁亂威脅
等事,不絕於耳。因此在地震災難發生後,
地方文武官員如臨大敵,努力闢謠、加派兵
力企圖維持當地治安。而這種謠言出現,人
們擔心再一次受創的心靈,也與地震過後所
帶來嚴重的衛生問題,導致疾病叢生,加劇
死亡人數,有極大的關連。


Major Earthquakes during the Qing dynasty

Our understanding of earthquakes during the Qing dynasty
is mostly limited by written records and files that have
been left behind. From these written accounts, we learn
that the large earthquakes that occurred during the Qing
dynasty were actually as big as the two big earthquakes
that occurred in the Japanese and post-war eras. For
example, in terms of buildings destroyed, a big earthquake
at Chiayi during the Qing dynasty unexpectedly caused the
collapse of 14,426 buildings throughout Chiayi County,
and of another 9,723 in Changhua County. Hundreds or even
thousands of lives were lost in earthquakes, such as the
earthquake of 1848, which killed around 1,000 people in
Chiayi and Changhua. The emotional damage inflicted by
earthquakes is even harder to heal. When big earthquakes
made their surprise attacks, people in times gone were
not only directly up against the great pain of losing
their loved ones, they also had no way of knowing exactly
why the earthquake had occurred, and so gossip and rumor
would often spread through the streets. Common rumors
such as the whisper that food and drink had been poisoned,
and that evil bandits from outside were going to take
advantage of the chaos to threaten the townsfolk would
reach people's ears. Consequently, in the aftermath of
an earthquake, local civil and military functionaries
would be extremely cautious, and work hard to quash the
rumors, and increase military presence in an effort to
preserve local public order. But the appearance of such
rumors would cause people to worry that another big shock
was on the way, and the serious public hygiene problems
that cropped up in the aftermath of an earthquake, leading
to epidemic illnesses, were very closely connected.


In 1935, the great Central Region earthquake ruptured
north-south rail connections in Taiwan. This picture
shows how a section of track close to the southern
mouth of Tunnel 8, north of Houli train station, was
twisted out of shape by the earthquake

地震的影響與城鎮的興衰

地震的無遠弗屆的破壞力,在台灣歷史上造
成了原本興盛的城鎮由盛而衰,如在清代同
治元年(1862年)的地震,造成茅港尾的逐
漸沒落。原本與鹽水港並駕齊驅的景象,近
千戶的人口,街道上店舖比鄰,隨著地震的
來襲,盛況不再。如日治時期1935年大地震
,台中州的屯子腳,原本是內埔莊最為繁華
的地區,在這場浩劫下,四千多的人口數剎
那間便有十分之一罹難,重創整個城鎮發展
。而這種驚人的破壞程度,對於環境的影響
,更是不容忽視,「走山」、河川改道,對
整個台灣的打擊是全面性的。



The influence of earthquakes and the rise and fall of
cities and towns

Earthquakes' power of destruction can reach everywhere,
and historically, earthquakes have brought low formerly
prosperous towns. The 1862 earthquake kicked off the gradual
decline of Maokangwei. Originally, it was a prosperous as
Yenshui Kang, and had close to a thousand inhabitants and
streets packed with shops and stores. After the earthquake
struck, the good times did not return. Tuntzuchiao in
Taichung Prefecture was once the most bustling and prosperous
town of Neipuchuang, but the earthquake of 1935 killed 4,000
people in the blink of an eye, and severely damaged the
development of the entire town. The impact on the environment
of this shocking level of destruction was even harder to
overlook, mountains moved, rivers changed their course: the
earthquake struck the whole of Taiwan.


「君之代少年」

在清代的台灣,由於清帝國版圖尚未涵蓋整
個島嶼,加上訊息及交通的傳遞不便,因此
多將地震視為地方性災情。但是在日本殖民
之下,由於統治範圍擴及全島,地震訊息經
過新聞、廣播及交通的傳遞,加上統治者強
而有力的運作之下,總督府各部門、州廳、
街莊皆投入救災及復健的行列,對於地震災
害的救護及關懷,逐漸形成全島的共識。唯
其統治者在救災的心態上,確有非議之處。
救災成為統治者的恩賜,而在大力復建地同
時,亦不忘塑造「美談」,曾刻意渲染一個
苗栗公館莊學生詹德坤在遭受地震災害臨死
之前唱了日本國歌「君之代」,來喚起台灣
人對日本的「愛國」之心。


"Kimigayo"

During the Qing era, because the Qing empire's domain in
Taiwan did not yet cover the entire island, and communications
and transport were not convenient, earthquakes were often
seen as regional disasters. But under Japanese colonial
rule, because the scope of government covered the whole
island, news of earthquakes was transmitted through
newspapers, broadcasting and transportation links, and
Taiwan's rulers powerful functioning, all the departments
of the Governor's Office, the prefectures and the cities
were all involved in disaster relief and reconstruction
work, and gradually an island-wide consensus was formed
regarding aid and care in the wake of earthquakes. Only
the Japanese rulers, in their attitude towards disaster
relief, were very certainly reproachable. Disaster relief
became a benevolent gift of the rulers, and when huge
efforts were being made for reconstruction, they did not
forget make up some instructive little anecdotes, and
deliberately embellished a story about a student in Kungkuan
Village in Miaoli, named Chan Teh-kun, who having been badly
injured by the quake, sang the Japanese national anthem,
"Kimigayo", on his deathbed. The story was supposed to make
Taiwanese people feel patriotic sentiments towards Japan.



在九二一大地震後,台灣面臨地震的態度逐
漸成熟、積極,對地震所帶來的傷害,從原
本只關注於人、物受創及撫卹重建的層次提
升至古蹟維護及災難記憶的傳承。回顧台灣
的地震災難,我們可以發現民眾對於地震的
發生,逐漸從原本的懵懂猜測轉變到瞭解面
對,政府部門對於地震災難的處理也積極全
力以赴。隨著日益精進的科學發達,從目測
到儀器觀察地震方式改變等等。不同的地震
災難在台灣隨著時代的變遷,不同的程度。
但是唯一不變的是,居住在這塊土地上的住
民相互扶持、患難與共的心,將一代代地傳
承下去。

After the great 921 earthquake, Taiwan's attitudes in the
face of earthquakes gradually became more mature and positive,
and attitudes towards the damage brought by earthquakes
shifted from the old concern only for people and things,
bringing comfort and rebuilding, to the preservation of
historical relics and the passing on of disaster memories.
Looking back at Taiwan's earthquakes, we can see that people
have moved from what was originally muddleheaded conjecture
to a deeper understanding, and government departments too
have a more positive and powerful handing of earthquakes and
disasters. With the development of science, we've gone from
measuring earthquakes with our eyes to measuring them with
equipment. Different kinds of earthquakes have happened in
Taiwan at different times. But the only constant is the
mutual support offered by the people living in this land,
a oneness of heart during suffering, that is passed on from
one generation to the next.

Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
李美儀編輯/何麗薩翻譯
TOP