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東臺灣的拓殖先驅—被遺忘的平埔族群
The pioneers of Eastern Taiwan - the forgotten Pingpu tribes

潘繼道/Jih-Daw Pan
2001-10-15


Local government office resembling a shrine
to a local deity.

台灣東部是個多族群分佈的區域,在這個區
域裡,不管是漢人或原住民,其實都非真正
的「原住」族群,而是在不同時期因不同需
要從外地遷徙而來的族群,他們經過挑戰、
衝突、回應與調和後,成為東臺灣的住民,
並為這塊土地締造出豐富且多元的文化。本
週「台灣歷史之窗」特別邀請中央大學歷史
研究所研究生潘繼道先生執筆,介紹在這塊
土地上兩個沉默的邊緣族群──噶瑪蘭族(
Kavalan)與西拉雅族(Siraya),循其遷徙
的路線與文化變遷的腳步,清楚地勾勒出它
們族群特性與應有的文化版圖。


Eastern Taiwan is a region scattered with many ethnic
groups, but whether Han or Aboriginal, none of these
groups are truly "original" inhabitants. Rather, all
moved into the area at different times, because of
different needs. They lived through great challenges
and conflicts to which they reacted, and which they
adjusted to, and they became the inhabitants of Eastern
Taiwan, establishing a rich and diverse culture in this
land. This week's Window on Taiwan is written by Jih-Daw
Pan, a graduate student at Academia Sinica's Institute
of History. He introduces the two relatively silent and
marginalized tribes, the Kavalan and the Siraya, their
wanderings, and the changes in their culture, and
clarifies and outlines their ethnological characteristics
and cultural domains.


1. 多族群分佈的東臺灣

自古以來,東臺灣即是個多族群分佈的區域
,除了閩、客為主的漢人之外,原住民族群
包括太魯閣族(Truku或Toroko,即泰雅族東
賽德克群—Sedeq)、撒基拉雅族(奇萊民族
,Sakiraya)、阿美族(Ami)、布農族(
Bunun)、卑南族(Puyuma或Panapanayan)
、排灣族(Paiwan)、魯凱族(Rukai)及達
悟族(Tao,以前稱為雅美族—Yami)。其實
,除了這些族群外,東臺灣還居住著一些沈
默的邊緣族群—平埔族,他們在漢化的洪流
中逐漸沾染漢習,並接受漢式的思維模式,
最後甚至「隱形」了起來,他們就是東臺灣
拓殖的先驅—噶瑪蘭族(Kavalan)與西拉雅
族(Siraya)。


1. The many ethnic groups of Eastern Taiwan

From ancient times, Eastern Taiwan has been a region of
many ethnic groups. In addition to the Han Chinese,
represented mainly by Min and Hakka groups, Aboriginal
tribes including the Truku (or Toroko), who are an
eastern Atayal group also called the Sedeq, the
Sakiraya, the Ami, the Bunun, the Puyuma (or Panapanayan),
the Paiwan, the Rukai and the Tao (previously called the
Yami). But in fact, apart from these tribes, there are
other, hidden tribes living in Eastern Taiwan: the Pingpu
tribes. In the tide of Han sinicization, they gradually
became tainted by Han customs and practices, and were
directly affected by Han modes of thought, until they
finally became invisible. They are the pioneers who
developed Eastern Taiwan - the Kavalan and the Siraya
peoples.


Kavalan text books and learning materials
from Hualien County's Hsinshe Elementary
School.

2. 「平原的人類」—噶瑪蘭族

噶瑪蘭族原本分佈於蘭陽平原上,是平埔族
群中最晚漢化的一支,其名稱起源於他們以
族語自稱是「平原的人類」(Kavalan)的漢字
音譯。他們以農業過程和祭儀來判斷時間週
期,並兼行鏢魚、網魚及打獵。他們對靈魂
相當恐懼,後來因被漢人利用,將屍體置於
土地之上,甚至築墓,而使其不得不棄地他
遷。



2. "The people of the plains" - the Kavalan tribe

The Kavalan were originally scattered over the Lanyang
Plain, one of the last Pingpu tribes to be sinicized.
In the Kavalan language, their name means "the people
of the plains." They split their time between
agriculture and sacrificial ceremonies, fishing
with spears and nets, and hunting wild animals.
They feared spirits, and were later used by the Han
people to bury their dead, and even build tombs,
leaving them with no choice but to move to another
area.



他們是母系社會,命名方式為「父子連名制
」,並以招贅婚為常則。而過年時,他們舉
行Palilin儀式祭拜祖先祈求降福。清嘉慶元
年(1796)後,由於吳沙等漢人的拓墾,土
地漸被奪佔,加上西部平埔族的遷入,使生
活空間受到嚴重侵奪,因而於道光二十年(
1840)遷移到今花蓮市美崙溪口。由於已侵
犯到撒基拉雅人的捕魚區域,因而引發戰爭
,使噶瑪蘭人不得不搬到北邊,而居住在今
新城鄉嘉裡村。當時移居者,以加禮宛社(
Karewan,今五結鄉季新社區)人口最多,因
此以之命名新建的部落,而社眾也被稱為加
禮宛人(Karewana)。

They were a matrilineal society, and in their system
of name-giving, the son took the last name of his
father as his first name, then passed on his last
name to his son, and so on. It was the norm for a
newly-wed man to move into the household of his wife's
parents. At the beginning of the new year, they held
the Palilin ceremony to worship their ancestors and
pray for benefaction. After 1796, thanks to Wu Sha
and other Han developers, the land was gradually taken
and occupied, and on top of this, the Western Pingpu
tribes moved in, all of which constituted a serious
invasion and occupation of their living space. As a
result, in 1840, the tribe moved to the mouth of the
Meilun river in what is now Hualien City. They had
already encroached upon the Sakiraya people's fishing
areas, which led to armed conflict, and this in turn
left the Kavalan people with no choice but to moved
northwards, and they settled in what is now Chiali
Village in Hsincheng Township. Of the migrants at this
time, the Karewan Community (now Chihsin Community in
Wuchieh Township) had the greatest population, and so
they established themselves as a new tribe by giving
new names, and they called themselves "Karewana."

之後由於拓墾區域主要在加禮宛附近,且從
事水稻種植的低濕地,與撒基拉雅人旱田燒
墾粟作的土地不同;加上風俗、語彙相近,
及近山地區太魯閣族侵襲的壓力,使兩族和
睦相處,成為攻守同盟。隨著人口增加,逐
漸分為六社。同治年間,更凌駕於阿美族、
太魯閣族之上,而稱雄於奇萊平原。但「牡
丹社事件」後的「開山撫番」,卻帶來命運
的轉變。

Later on, because the major area of development was close
to Karewan, and because they cultivated their rice in low
wetlands, different from the methods of the Sakiraya, who
practiced shifting cultivation and planted millet on dry
land, and because their customs and languages were close,
and the pressure resulting from encroachment by the Taroko
tribe from nearby mountain regions made the Karewana and
Sakiraya get along, and they made an alliance. As their
populations increased, they gradually split into six
communities. During the reign of the Qing Emperor Tongzhi
(1862 - 1874), they overrode the Ami and Taroko tribes,
and took possession of the Chilai Plain. But the "opening
of the mountains and pacifying of the barbarians" which
took place after the Mudan Incident of 1871 brought changes
to their lives.

光緒四年(1878),陳輝煌以官軍身份招搖
撞騙,又詐索加禮宛人金錢;加上清軍欺壓
、凌辱婦人,因此聯合撒基拉雅人共同抗清
。但最後在寡不敵眾及清軍優勢火力下,於
九月上旬降服。之後除了處死首謀者外,並
由總兵吳光亮擇地安插加禮宛人,同時劃清
漢番地界。這場戰役後一些加禮宛人搬遷到
花東縱谷及東海岸,造成奇萊平原原住民勢
力重新洗牌。


In the fourth year of the Guangxu Emperor (1878), Chen
Hui-huang used his status as an official military man to
carry out a great swindle, and extorted money from the
Karewana; in addition to this, the Qing army rode roughshod
over them and raped the women, and so they united with the
Sakiraya to resist the Qing together. But ultimately they
were hopelessly outnumbered, and the Qing army had the
advantage of firepower, and at the beginning of September
the Aboriginals surrendered. Afterwards, apart from
executing the leaders of the rebellion, Commander Wu
Guang-liang decided to resettle the Karewana in certain
locations. At the same time, he drew clear boundary lines
between Han and Aboriginal peoples. After this battle, some
of the Karewana moved to the long valley between Hualien
and Taitung (the Huatung Valley), and the eastern seacoast,
where they regrouped the strength of the Aboriginals of the
Chilai Plain.

3. 不願矮人一截的「舊人」—西拉雅族


在花東縱谷中段地區,住著很多「舊人」。
他們皮膚黝黑,有原住民般的臉孔,卻說著
特殊腔調的閩南話。由於長期漢化,習慣漢
人的思維方式,不喜歡被稱為平埔番或熟番
,因此也稱自己為人,而且是比漢人更早來
的「舊人」。舊人原本住在南臺灣的平原及
近山地區,原族群是西拉雅族(Siraya),
其中又可分為西拉雅、大滿(Taivoan)、馬
卡道(Makattao)三支亞族。


3. The "Old People" -- early settlers who were unwilling
 to be classed as inferior -- the Siraya Tribe

In the middle section of the Huatung Valley live many
descendents of early settlers. Their skin is dark, their
facial features similar to those of other Aboriginals,
but they speak Min dialect (Hokkien). After many years
of sinicization, they were used to the Han people's ways
of thinking, and didn't like to be called Pingpu Aboriginals,
or "cooked" Aboriginals. So they called themselves simply
"people" and said that they were the "Old People" who had
come to Taiwan earlier than the Han Chinese. These early
settlers originally lived in the plains and the borders
of the mountain regions of Southern Taiwan, and were
originally of the Siraya Tribe. The Siraya can be further
divided into three branch tribes, the Siraya, the Taivoan
and the Makattao.


A-Li ancestor belief at the local government
office in Tungli Village.

西拉雅族的祖先最早接觸到荷蘭人和漢人,
因此比其他原住民族群較早承受土地喪失、
族群競爭的壓力。他們以農耕為主,打獵為
輔,並依季節的變化及穀物成熟來推斷時間
的週期。其村落呈集村的型態,游耕是他們
粗放農業的生產方式,他們用休耕的方法來
恢復地利,且不過度捕殺鹿群。

The ancestors of the Siraya people were the first to have
contact with Dutch and early Han Chinese settlers, and so
they experienced loss of their land and the pressures of
ethnic strife earlier than did other Aboriginal tribes.
They subsisted mainly on agriculture, but supplemented
their diet with game, and marked the passing of time by
changes in the seasons and the ripening of cereal crops.
Their villages were compact and concentrated, and their
non-intensive method of farming production was slash-and-burn.
They let the land lie fallow so that it could recover its
productivity, and were careful not to hunt deer to excess.

他們屬於母系社會,觀念上重女輕男,由女
子繼承。清道光九年(1829),他們因土地
喪失,而從裡港、屏東一帶遷到後山卑南附
近。最初他們想用牛、豬跟卑南族人交換土
地,但對方收下東西後卻不肯他們久住,甚
至在喝的水中丟糞便,由於力量太弱,只好
忍耐度日。九年後往北搬到今天玉裡鎮的長
良裡,並將聚落稱為「大莊」。

As a matrilineal society, they valued women over men,
and inheritance was passed from mother to daughter. In
the ninth year of the Daoguang Emperor (1829), they
moved from the areas of Likang and Pingtung to Peinan,
an area in the mountains. To start with, they hoped to
use oxen and swine to barter with the Puyuma tribe for
land, but after the Puyuma received their part of the
bargain, they were unwilling to share land with the Siraya
on a permanent basis, and even went so far as to contaminate
their drinking water with animal excrement. Because the
Siraya were not as powerful as the Puyuma, they had no
choice but to endure this. Nine years later, they moved
northwards to Changliangli, in the modern-day township of
Yuli (Hualien County), and they named their village
"Tachuang."

最初三年,作物生長不好,因此族長趕著牛
、豬向布農族人換取食物與和平關係。由於
聽說山裡有路可通往荖濃溪,因此選派勇士
前往邀請族人前來拓墾。當時與東邊的阿美
族人一直處於緊張狀態,因此就跟卑南族人
通婚,共同出兵把阿美族人趕走,然後搬到
現在富裡鄉的東裡村,改地名為「大莊」,
而舊聚落稱為「舊莊」。隨著人口增加及族
人陸續遷來,他們在花東縱谷中段地區形成
強大的部族。另外,在東海岸也有他們族人
遷往當地。光緒七年(1881)十月,大莊附
近的溪流暴漲,沖毀了他們的家園,使部分
的族人四散流離,但也意外地使其活動區域
擴張。

For the first three years, their crops did not grow
well, and consequently the tribal elders took their
oxen and swine to exchange with the Bunun tribe for
food and an agreement for peaceful relations. Because
they had heard that there were paths in the mountains
that led to Laonung Creek, they decided to send several
intrepid envoys ahead to ask the tribes that lived there
if it would be alright for the Siraya to come and develop
the land there. At that time, the Siraya had been getting
along very badly with the Ami tribe in the east, and so
they had been intermarrying with the Puyuma tribe. They
combined forces to drive the Ami away, and then moved to
what is today Tungli Village in Fuli Township, changing
the name to "Tachuang," but called the old settlement
"Chiuchuang" ("old place"). As the population increased
and more and more people from the tribe moved into the
area, they became a powerful tribe in the central region
of the Huatung Valley. Others from the tribe moved to
the east coast. In October of the seventh year of the
Guangxu Emperor (1881), a river close to Tachuang burst
its banks, destroying their homestead, and forcing some
of the tribe to scatter in all directions, but an
unexpected result of this was to extend the region of
their activities.

4. 今日東臺灣的平埔族群

光緒四年之後遷到東海岸的噶瑪蘭人,包括
新社、立德、石梯、樟原……等地的噶瑪蘭
人,因地處偏僻,且相當集居,與當地阿美
族人勢力相當,意外地仍能說著噶瑪蘭話及
保留自己的文化,但原來的加禮宛地區漢化
的腳步加速地進行著,舊有的大社內更矗立
著香火鼎盛的漢式「天公廟」(保安宮)。


4. The Pingpu tribes in Eastern Taiwan today

After the Kavalan people moved to the east coast in
1878, to places such as Hsinshe, Liteh, Shihti, Changyuen,
because of the remote and secluded location, the proximity
to each other in which the Kavalan people lived, and the
considerable strength of the local Ami tribe, the Kavalan
found, to their surprise, that they were actually able to
retain their own language and customs, but as sinicization
of the Karewan region gathered speeded, Chinese-style
temples filled with incense burners sprang up in old
aboriginal societies.


而舊人在日本統治後,曾發生蝗災,不過已
少了政府的武力鎮壓。在「皇民化運動」期
間,舊人家中的阿立祖信仰被禁止,但仍有
人偷偷地把祂藏起來祭拜。光復後舊人愈來
愈漢化,且有些人嫌祂太麻煩而放棄祂。今
天在東裡村仍舊有公廨(音「謝」,原意為
政府機關辦公的房子,在此指舉行祭典儀式
的公共區域)存在,但傳統的祭儀已經被遺
忘了。在玉裡鎮的河東地區、富裡鄉、池上
鄉、關山鎮、長濱鄉等地仍可見到他們黝黑
的身影,但已經很難聽到他們承認自己就是
平埔族了。真希望這些平埔族裔能夠覺醒,
重拾信心,認同自己的族群與文化,而不要
在漢化的洪流中成為絕響。


Under Japanese rule, the "Old People" suffered from natural
disaster, in the shape of a plague of locusts, but military
suppression from government forces had already abated.
During the Japanese movement to make the people of Taiwan
subjects of the Japanese emperor, the "Old People" saw
their family religion, the "A-Li Ancestor Belief," banned,
but some of them continued to worship in secret. After
retrocession, the "Old People" became increasingly
sinicized, and some of them felt that this belief was too
much trouble, and abandoned it. Today there are still
some "local government offices" in Tungli Village (the
name for these buildings, "gunghsieh," derives from the
word for government offices, but these were actually public
spaces where sacrificial ceremonies were held). The
traditional sacrificial ceremonies, however, have already
been forgotten. In places such as the Hotung region of
Yuli Township, in Fuli, Chihshang, Kuanshan and Changpin
Townships, you can still see these people with their dark
skins, but you'll rarely hear any of them admit that they
are from the Pingpu tribes. I truly hope that these
descendents of the Pingpu peoples can wake up and find the
confidence once again to identify with their ethnicity and
culture, instead of falling silent amid the roaring torrent
of sinicization.

Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
李美儀編輯/何麗薩翻譯
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