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林獻堂與近代台灣民主運動
Lin Hsien-tang and the contemporary Taiwan democracy movement

戴寶村/Tai Pao-Tsun
(中央大學歷史系教授)
(Professor, National Central University Department of History)

2001-10-22


Keelung personages welcoming Petition Committee
members in 1925.

新世紀之初,適逢台灣文化協會成立八十週
年紀念。回顧此一民主里程碑成立之初,第
一任總理林獻堂先生以其崇高理想與溫和堅
定的行動力,藉由文協設讀報社、舉辦文化
演講與夏季學校等活動,向當時的殖民日本
政府表達台灣人追求自主自治的決心,也向
世人昭示台灣人在民主的道路上所做的努力
與成果,近代台灣民主運動的序幕於焉展開
。本週「台灣歷史之窗」特別邀請中央大學
歷史系教授戴寶村執筆,由這位集財富、聲
望與道德勇氣於一身的民族領袖談起,探討
其生平行誼與近代台灣民主運動之關係。


This first year of the new century marks the 80th
anniversary of establishment the Taiwan Culture
Association (台灣文化協會). Looking back on the
early days of this milestone in the history of
Taiwan, it was in large part due to the efforts
of the Association's first chairman Lin Hsien-tang
(林獻堂), with his soaring ideals and gentle but
firm motive power, and through such association-
sponsored activities as "news reading clubs,"
culture-related speeches, and special summer schools,
that the Japanese government was given notice of the
Taiwan people's will to self-determination and self-rule.
This chapter in history also serves to explain to the
world the efforts and accomplishments of Taiwan's
people in the early stages of the contemporary Taiwan
democracy movement. This Week's "Window on Taiwan"
invites Professor Tai Pao-Tsun of the National Central
University Department of History to discuss the
nationalist movement through focusing this nationalist
leader combining wealth, prestige and moral power in
one person, tracing the path of action his life took,
and examining its relationship with the contemporary
Taiwan democracy movement.


父親的影響

一八八一年十月二十二日林獻堂出生於豪富
的霧峰林家,七歲開始他在林家所設的家塾
接受啟蒙教育,在國學教養上受益良多,家
庭環境與教育對他的性格影響更深。他父親
文欽待人處事溫雅和善,而且熱心公益。他
曾召勇營參與抗法戰爭,組抗日義軍,平時
亦修路建橋設渡,施診賑災。林文欽好學與
溫和慈善的性格對林獻堂影響頗深,其人溺
己溺、以天下為己任的襟懷,促使他長期投
身於台灣民族活動。



Father's Influence

Lin Hsien-tang was born into a wealthy family in Wu
Feng (霧峰) [in present-day Nantou County] on October 22,
1881. At the age of 7, he began his initiatory education
in the village school established by his family, deriving
great benefit from his study of classic Chinese writings.
He was deeply influenced by his family environment and
education. His father, Lin Wen-chin (林文欽) was
gentlemanly and kind in his treatment of others and
handling of affairs and was enthusiastic in working
for the public welfare. He organized a militia to
fight in the war of resistance against France and
organized another force of volunteers to resist the
Japanese. He routinely gave support for such public
works as road repair, bridge and river ford construction,
provision of community medical care and disaster relief.
Lin Wen-chin's love of learning and compassionate nature
had a quite profound influence upon Lin Hsien-tang. Moved
by other people's suffering, and regarding the world's
problems as his own, leading him to play an active role
in Taiwan nationalist movement over a long period of time.


一九○二年獻堂受邀出任霧峰區長,翌年辭
職,後來不得已再受任命。一九○五年出任
台灣製麻株式會社(設於豐原)取締役(董事)
。這時期他伸展思想的觸角,曾閱讀《萬國
公報》、《新民叢報》、《民報》等雜誌,
並且由堂姪幼春(一八八○~一九三九)的推介
而開始心折梁啟超所提倡的民族、民權主義
,逐漸醞釀出日後民族運動的方向。


In 1902, Lin Hsien-tang was invited [by the Japanese
colonial government which ruled Taiwan for 50 years
from 1895 to 1945] to serve as the Wu Feng regional
chief. In the following year he resigned but was later
prevailed upon to once again serve in that office. In
1905, he served as torishimariyaku(president) of the
Taiwan seima kabushiki in Fengyuan. At this time his
thinking was broadened through reading of such magazines
as the "Pan-National Public Report", "New People'sReport"
and "People's Report". Further, after being introduced to
the thought of Liang Ch'i-ch'ao [a major political and
social thinker from mainland China] by his cousin's son
Lin Yu-chun (1880-1939), he began contemplating the
concepts of nationalism and democracy as advocated by
Liang, gradually setting the direction of development
which the nationalism movement would later take.


巧遇梁啟超,確立溫和民主路線


一九○七年獻堂首次旅遊日本,在奈良戲劇
性地巧遇梁啟超,雙方談及台灣人所受之不
平等待遇和台胞如何爭取自由平等,梁啟超
告以中國在三十年內無力助台胞爭取自由,
台胞不可輕舉妄動作無謂犧牲,宜倣傚愛爾
蘭對付英國的手段,厚結日本中央政界顯要
,牽制台灣總督府的政治,使其不致過份壓
制台人,這番談話成為日後獻堂從事民族運
動採取溫和路線的原則。


Chance meeting with Liang Chi-chao sets foundation for
moderate democratic approach

When Hsien-tang visited Japan for the first time in 1907,
he had a rather dramatic chance encounter with Liang
Ch'i-ch'ao in Nara. The two discussed how the people of
Taiwan were the victims of unequal treatment [by the
Japanese colonial government] and how they might struggle
to attain freedom and equality. Liang told Lin that China
would not be in a position to help the Taiwanese win
freedom for the next 30 years; that the Taiwanese must
not act rashly and make a meaningless sacrifice; and that
it was best for the Taiwanese to emulate the tactics of
the Irish toward the English government -- making friends
with prominent politicians in the Japanese central
government with the aim of placing restraints upon the
Japanese Viceroy office's governance of Taiwan, keeping
it from flagrantly oppressing the Taiwanese. [The
non-violent strategy discussed in] this conversation
became the principle underlying Lin Hsien-tang's
subsequent moderate approach in the Taiwan nationalist
movement.


一九一一年四月六日梁啟超下榻萊園五桂樓
,討論政治、經濟、文化、教育與民族運動
諸問題,並勸獻堂要多研究政治、經濟、社
會、思想等學問,並開列東西書籍約達兩百
種,使其眼光更為開闊,梁啟超旅台對林獻
堂影響最深的是指引其採行非暴力的民族運
動,並對其思想、學問有所啟發 。

In 1911 Liang Ch'i-ch'ao came to Taiwan, residing in
Laiyan (萊園) at the "Five Osmanthus Pavilion." He
discussed politics, economics, culture, education,
and nationalist movements with Lin, urging him to do
more reasearch readings in politics, economics,
sociology, and general thought, and drawing up a
list of about 200 books on these topics from East
and West in order to broaden the horizon of Lin's
understanding. Besides the general effect of stimulating
the development of Lin's thought and learning, the
deepest influence upon Lin from Liang's sojourn in
Taiwan was that it led him to adopt a nonviolent
approach to nationalism.

林獻堂在一九一三年與從兄(堂兄)紀堂、
列堂聯絡中部紳士辜顯榮、吳德功、蔡蓮舫
、林熊徵等向總督府請願,爭取創設台中中
學,一九一五年五月正式開校,台中中學結
合全島紳士富豪為台人爭取教育權,帶有民
族運動色彩,故成為民族運動第一聲。



In 1913, together with two older cousins, Lin Chi-
tang and Lin Lie-tang, Lin Hsien-tang enlisted the
aid of central Taiwan gentry Ku Hsien-jung, Wu Te-
kung, Tsai Lien-fang, Lin Hsiung-cheng and others to
petition the office of the Japanese Viceroy to fight
forf the establishment of Taichung High School, which
formally opened in May 1915. Subsequently the school
united the gentry and wealthy families all over the
island to fight for the right to education. With its
nationalist coloration, this was the first instance of
the nationalist movement

一九一四年十二月二十日在台北成立「同化
會」。隨後在台中、台南成立分會,會員達
三千多人,假文化之名,而行爭取平等待遇
之實,總督府乃發動官民合作攻擊板垣。一
九一五年一月二十六日,日本政府以「妨害
公安」之名解散該會。林獻堂致力於爭取在
台灣設議會爭取民權,台灣議會設置請願運
動自一九二一年至一九三四年的十四年間,
共向日本帝國議會提出十五次請願,一九二
七年之後民族運動陣線分裂,內外環境變化
激烈,一九三四年請願運動逐告中止。



On December 20, 1914, the "Equalitarian Association"
was established in Taipei with branches subsequently
established in Taichung and Tainan. Its 3,000-plus
membership struggled in the name of "culture" to realize
equal treatment [between Japanese and Taiwanese]. In
response the Viceroy's office mobilized its officials
in a coordinated attack upon itagaki. On January 26,
1915 the Japanese government dissolved the association
on the pretext of its "harm to public security." Lin
Hsien-tang nevertheless continued to energetically fight
for the establishment of a representative assembly in order
to win the right to self-rule. Between 1921 and 1934, the
assembly movement sent a total of 15 petitions to the
Japanese Imperial Assembly. After 1927, the Taiwan
nationalist coalition became fragmented [as the result of]
dramatic changes in internal and external conditions.
Subsequently, the petition drive came to an end in 1934.


台灣文化協會的成立與分裂

議會設置請願運動由文化協會的運動推廣至
全島,「台灣文化協會」成立於一九二一年
十月十七日,雖由蔣渭水創立,但得到林獻
堂的大力支持,故由他擔任總理之職。自一
九二三年至二七年止,他積極參與文協的活
動,如在各地設讀報社、舉辦講習會,對民
眾進行思想的啟蒙,一九二四年起連續在萊
園舉辦夏季學校,啟發青年之民族精神,文
協在各地舉辦的文化演講會更是啟蒙運動的
中心工作。


The rise and fall of the Taiwan CultureAssociation

The Petition Movement for the establishment of a Taiwan
representative assembly was popularized throughout the
island by the Taiwan CultureAssociation. The Taiwan
CultureAssociation was established on October 17, 1921.
Though established by Chiang Wei-shui, Lin Hsien-tang
served as its general director due to his strong support
for it. From 1923 to 1927, Lin actively took part in the
association's activities, which included among other
things the establishment of "news reading clubs" and
sponsoring of symposia throughout the island, in order
to awaken the public's political consciousness. Beginning
in 1924, the Association sponsored summer schools at
Laiyuan in order to develop a Taiwan-nationalist
consciousness among the Taiwan's youth. The Association's
sponsoring of lectures on culture all over the island
was the core work of this consciousness-awakening movement.


一九二○年代起,隨著農民運動的熱烈開展
,日本本土、中國大陸的思潮衝擊、共產主
義、無政府主義逐漸影響運動分子的思想與
行動,勞工、學生、農民運動亦漸蓬勃,終
於造成民族運動陣營的分裂。一九二七年一
月三日文協正式分裂,進而演變為新文化協
會(左派)與台灣民眾黨(右派)相互對立的局
面。獻堂面臨左派奪權右派抵拒而造成分裂
,深感沉痛苦悶,故兩派活動皆不參與。

The 1920s was marked by social and political foment.
Following upon the arisal of a fervent farmers'movement,
conflicting ideologies of communism, anarchism, etc.
gradually began to have an influence upon the thought and
action of movement activists, with new labor, student, and
farmers'movements arising, finally resulting in divisiveness
with the nationalist movement. On January 3, 1927, the
Taiwan CultureAssociation was formally dissolved, followed
by confrontation between the leftist New Culture Society
and the rightist Taiwan People's Party. In face of this
breakdown of the nationalist movement, caused by contending
leftist attempts to gain power and rightist counteractions,
Lin felt deeply hurt and discouraged, withdrawing from
participation in either camp.

日本政府的最後籠絡

一九三五年台灣的政治社會運動終告沉寂,
中日關係日趨緊張,日本國內軍國主義氣勢
昂揚。一九四○年,台灣進入皇民化時期,
日本為使台人日本化與日本同心協力投入戰
爭,故籠絡政治運動領袖,一九四一年十一
月六日,請獻堂擔任總督府評議員,一九四
四年被「皇民奉公會」台中事務部任為大屯
郡事務長,一九四五年任命他為貴族院敕選
議員,八月戰爭結束,五十年前清廷割讓給
日本的台灣遂由代表盟軍受降的中華民國政
府暫時接收。


The Japanese government's final enticement

By 1935, political and social movement activities in
Taiwan had come to a virtual standstill. Sino-Japanese
relations had become increasingly tense as the consequence
of the ascendancy of Japanese nationalistic militarism. In
1940 Taiwan entered into the "imperial citizenization"
period, in which, in order to "Japanify" the people of
Taiwan and induce them to support Japan's World War II
effort, Japan gave enticements to Taiwan's political
movement leaders. On November 6, 1941, it recruited Lin
Hsienh-feng to serve as ombudsman for the Viceroy's
office; in 1944 he was appointed as daiton gun jimuho
by the Taichung Adminstrative Department of the komin
hokokai; and in 1945 he was appointed councillor by
kizokuin. Upon the conclusion of World War II in August
1945, Taiwan came under the provisional control of the
Republic of China government, which, on behalf of the
Allies, accepted the surrender of [the Japanese on]
Taiwan, 50 years after it was been ceded to Japan by
Ch'ing Dynasty China.



民國時期的望鄉隱士

一九四六年五月第一屆台灣省參議會成立,
獻堂當選省會議員、而且最具膺選議長希望
,由於黃朝琴參與角逐,他得到長官公署的
屬意,丘念台亦勸獻堂考量公私環境退出競
選,遂由黃朝琴當選議長。


Frustrations in the era of KMT rule

In May of 1946, when the Taiwan Provincial Assembly was
established, Lin Hsien-tang was elected as assemblyman
and had the best chance of being elected as Assembly
Speaker. Due, however, to the competition for that
position by Huang Chao-chin who was favored by many in
government officialdom, and at the urging of Chiu Nien-tai
to withdraw from the race in consideration of various
conditions in and out of officialdom, Huang was ultimately
elected as Assembly Speaker.



一九四九年九月二十三日,獻堂以治頭眩之
疾赴日,治病是一種理由,實似有難言之隱
;獻堂出身富家豪族,而且是長期民族運動
的領袖人物,竟被長官公署列為「臺省漢奸
」,也曾遭受武力威嚇的徵米待遇,而土地
改革對其家族之地主資產的經濟基盤不無影
響。加以他對政府的主張和批評未被接納,
在對政治灰心之餘,乃決定脫離是非漩渦,
漂泊異國,成為望鄉的遁士。一九五六年九
月八日病逝東京,享年七十六歲。

On September 23, 1949 [the year the mainland failed to the
Chinese revolutionaries], Lin traveled to Japan for
treatment of an ailment causing him dizziness. While this
was indeed one reason for the trip, there were other reasons
which he could not conveniently reveal. Though having been
born into a wealthy family and having long served as a
Taiwan nationalist leader, the KMT government had come to
look upon him as a "traitor in Taiwanese" and had subjected
him to intimidating rice-harvest levies by the military, in
addition to which the financial base which his family
landholdings had provided him had been severely effected by
the government's land reform program. Adding to this his
feeling of disappointment with politics owing to the
government's failure to give attention to his suggestions a
nd his criticisms of the government, Lin decided to extricate
himself from the whirlpool of political contention to become
an expatriate, homeward-yearning recluse. On September 8,
1956 he passed away in Tokyo at the age of 76.


Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
李美儀編輯/何麗薩翻譯
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