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大船入港,快樂出航 - 基隆港的歷史
The History of Keelung Harbor

呂月娥/Lu Yueh-e
(中原大學近代建築與都市研究室研究員)
(Chungyuan University, Research Fellow, Modern Architecture and Urban Research Institute)

2001-10-29


Keelung harbor and city after completion of urban renewal,
the straight-shore docks and square-grid road system.

基隆市區具有相當鮮明有緻的都市地景,穿
越大業隧道進入市中心映入眼簾iris的就是
海港、船艦的景象及海洋的氣息,但這個城
市除了迷人的海岸景觀及著名的廟口小吃之
外,背後還有一段豐富璀璨的發展歷史,甚
至「港市合一」的理念早就已經由前人實現
過了。本週台灣歷史之窗特別邀請中原大學
近代建築與都市研究室研究員呂月娥帶我們
一起回顧這段歷史,讓我們見識這個海港山
城另一種偉大的面貌。


In physical appearance, Keelung City presents a distinctly
contrasting multiplicity of textures. As you exit the Tayeh
Tunnel and enter into the downtown area, what immediately
jumps into your field of vision is the scene of harbor
and ships, infused with maritime spirit. But besides the
city's enchanting harbor scenes and the famed eateries near
the temples , Keelung has a rich and dazzling history of
development, even long ago having achieved the ideal of
organic oneness of port operations and city life. This
week's Window on Taiwan invites Lu Yueh-e, Research Fellow
at the Chungyuan University Modern Architecture and Urban
Research Institute, to help us appreciate another splendid
aspect of this mountain town on the sea.


清朝時期的傳統基隆港市街

基隆在清朝雍正年間就有漢人移居內港,在
蚵殼港、石硬港及田寮港所沖激出的沙洲上
過著「耕漁並耦,雞狗相聞」的生活。道光
年後,歐美勢力東移,基隆因豐富的煤礦資
源及優越的港口條件而成為中外通商史上的
重要港口,至此清朝政府開始認識基隆的重
要性,除了將行政層級提升為基隆廳之外,
並進行實質上的建設。




Keelung's Ch'ing Dynasty-era traditional streets

During the Yung Cheng Reign Period of the Ch'ing Dynasty
(1723-1736), ethnic Han Chinese immigrants settled in the
Keelung region, living on the delta sand bars deposited by
the rivers flowing into Keelung's Hako Harbor, Shihying
Harbor and Tienliac Harbor, living as farmers and
fishermen in isolated communities with hardly any contact
between them. When Europe and America began projecting
their influence into the East Asia region during the Tao
Kuang Reign Period (1821-1851), Keelung, because of its
plentiful coal resources and excellent harbor conditions,
became a major entrepot in the history of trade between
China and other countries. For this reason, the Ch'ing
government began noting Keelung's importance and, besides
upgrading its administative designation to "t'ing" or
sub-prefect, also initiated substantive construction
programs.


西元1885年(光緒11年)台灣首任巡撫劉銘
傳上任後,首先遴委台灣首富林維源為基隆
築港事宜的總辦,延聘外國工程師多人進行
港灣測量及設計,計畫包含浚深內港深度、
填埋新生地、建設運河及倉庫等港埠設施。
再者,基於全台的商務、海防及運輸的需求
,建設基隆至台北間的鐵道,其中獅球嶺隧
道更成為中國鐵道史上的第一條隧道,而基
隆至台北的鐵道於西元1891年(光緒17年)
完工。第三項建設則為八斗子的西式官營煤
廠,也是中國的第一座西式煤廠。而由於基
隆自古就是台灣東北角一個易受盜匪及外國
勢力介入的港口,在基隆地位日漸提昇之時
,清廷自然加重了港口的軍事防衛,增建砲
台、水雷局及增加駐兵等等。


After Liu Ming-chuan took office as Taiwan's first governor
under the Ch'ing Court in 1885 (Kuang Hsu Reign Period Year
11), he first recruited Taiwan's wealthiest figure Lin Wei-yuan
as the General Overseer of Keelung port construction projects.
Subsequently, foreign engineers were hired to survey the harbor
and set out a development blueprint, which included dredging
the inner harbor, making landfills to extend the shoreline
outward, plus construction of canals, warehouses and other
port facilities. In addition, in consideration of the
commercial, coastal defense and transport needs of Taiwan
as a whole, construction of a Keelung-Taipei railroad was
begun. As part of that project, the Shihchiuling Tunnel was
the first example of tunnel construction in the history of
Chinese railways. The railway link with Taipei was completed
in 1891 (Kuang Hsu Year 17). A third major item of
construction was the Western-style state-run coaling
facility at Patoutzu, the first such Western-style facility
in China. Moreover, inasmuch as Keelung had always been one
of the locales on Taiwan's northeast coast most vulnerable
to the incursions of pirates and Western powers, in view of
Keelung's steadily growing importance, the Ch'ing government
naturally took steps to bolster the port's military
preparedness, including building artillery emplacements,
establishing a mine-laying authority, and beefing up
its troop deployment.


可惜的是,這一連串的建設計畫在劉銘傳去
職之後因無人繼承而荒廢,基隆港並未在這
一階段的建設中全面近代化,市街仍維持傳
統聚落的型式,人煙稠密而街道狹隘,加上
終年風雨的氣候及市街的地勢低漥,而被形
容為「瘴毒橫生」之處。


Alas, following Liu Ming-chuan's departure from office this
entire range of construction projects slipped into retrograde
deterioration for want of a successor to promote them,
resulting in Keelung Harbor's failure to become completely
modernized during this period of construction. Its streets
were still those of a traditional village, its residents
living in tightly packed quarters along narrow lanes. Adding
to this condition was Keelung's year-round rainy, windy weather
and the low-lying topography of its streets, as a consequence
of which it had a reputation for being a "breeding ground for
pestilence."


Keelung Railway Station during the Japanese colonial era, the
most important complex for land-sea shipment of cargoes to
and from Keelung.

日治時期基隆港的興築過程

雖然清朝劉銘傳曾有意建設基隆港,但成果
有限,真正推動基隆港邁入近代化歷程的時
期應是在日治期間。西元1895年(明治28年
)日本依馬關條約領有海外的第一個殖民地
台灣,為了運送大量的人力及物資至此,總
督府選擇了具有天然港口條件且區位最靠近
日本的基隆港作為全台第一個實施港口現代
化的港灣,從此基隆港市步入了有系統的近
代化歷程。


Japanese colonial era construction process

While Liu Ming-chuan had endeavored to build up Keelung's
port facilities, his actual accomplishments in that regard
were limited. The period in which it can be said that
Keelung was truly impelled into a modern stage of
development was the Japanese colonial era. Subsequent to
the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895 (Year 29 in Meiji Era),
by which Taiwan became Japan's first overseas colony, in
order to facilitate shipment of large quantities of
manpower and materiel to Taiwan, the Japanese Viceroy's
Office selected Keelung, with its natural harbor and its
closest proximity to Japan, as the first harbor or bay in
Taiwan to undergo transformation into a modernized
seaport. This marked the beginning of Keelung's ongoing,
systematic process of modernization.


台灣總督府相當看重基隆築港這項大工程,
其重要性除了擔任台灣與日本間的主要聯絡
港之外,更是日本展現其殖民能力的一個舞
台,因此對於基隆築港所投入的時間、人力
、經費為全台港口中最高者,基隆港在日治
時期躍升為台灣航運之首要港。西元1896年
(明治29年)日本領有台灣的第二年即成立
了「基隆築港調查委員會」,參與計畫的技
師皆具有築港及土木事業經驗,而在西元
1898年(明治31年)評估將基隆港作為純商
港使用,但是一旦面臨軍事需求時,商港將
供作軍港使用。



The Viceroy's Office in Taiwan placed great importance upon
the large-scale port construction project in Keelung not
only because of its importance as the primary port connecting
Taiwan with Japan but because it could serve as a stage for
demonstrating Japan's capabilities as a colonial power.
Consequently, the amounts of time, manpower and funds
expended on Keelung port construction were the greatest for
all of Taiwan, and Keelung became the premier port for
Taiwan's sea-borne trade. In 1896 (Meiji Year 29), the second
year of Japan's accession of Taiwan, the Keelung Port
Construction Survey Commission was established, all of its
participating technicians having had previous port construction
and civil engineering experience. In 1898 (Meiji Year 31), it
was planned that Keelung would serve as a purely commercial
port, but with contingency plans for military applications
should the need arise.

築港工程由西元1900年(明治33年)起至西
元1945年(昭和20年)日本戰敗為止共46年
之久,分為四期逐步推行。第一期築港工程
因預算關係成果有限,內港在浚深工程之後
可提供2艘3,000噸級的汽船進入裝卸貨,而
浚深內港所產生的土砂則作為填埋新生地的
用材,一共填埋出包含東岸小基隆等47,500
坪的新生地。整體而言,基隆港的港灣潛力
在這一階段尚未完全發揮。



Keelung port construction proceeded in 4 phases over a period
of 46 years, from 1900 (Meiji Year 33) until 1945 (Showa Year
20), when Japan was defeated in World War II. Due to
budgetary constraints, the first phase was limited in scope.
After dredging of the inner harbor of the port, it could
simultaneously handle the loading or unloading of two
3,000-ton class steamships. The dredged silt and stones
were employed as landfill, in all creating 47,500 ping
[1 ping = 36 square feet] of new land on the eastern shore
of the bay in the areas of "Little Keelung" and other
communities. As the result of this first phase, however,
Keelung's potential as a seaport had only begun to be
developed.


西元1906年(明治39年)實施第二期築港工
程,基隆港正式進入最大規模的內港整頓期
,完成後基隆港以仙洞鼻防波堤為界區隔出
內外港,內港海岸碼頭全數建設完畢,筆直
的海岸碼頭及先進的運輸及倉儲設備,加上
流經市區的三條河川整頓成可供運載貨物的
運河,基隆港的貿易額取代淡水一躍成為全
台第一。


With commencement of the second phase of the port
construction project in 1906 (Meiji Year 39), Keelung
Harbor formally entered upon the period of largest-scale
revamping of its inner harbor. After Seawall construction
was completed Keelung Harbor was divided, with
Hsientungpi as a demarcation, into inner and outer
harbors, and construction of all inner harbor docks was
completed. With its long-stretching straight docks and its
advanced onshore transport and warehouse facilities, together
with hydraulic engineering performed on the three rivers
running through the city enabling them to serve as canals,
the volume of trade handled by Keelung Harbor leapt beyond
that of Tamsui, taking its place as the number one seaport
in Taiwan.


因貨物運送量不斷攀升,西元1929年(昭和
4年)進入第三期築港工程,築港範圍由內港
延伸至外港,並調整內港作為純商港使用,
而在社寮島(現和平島)及八尺門間建設基
隆漁港。西元1935年(昭和10年)進入第四
期築港工程,此時在南進政策及太平洋戰爭
的影響之下,興建了外港東西兩座防波堤及
社寮島上大型的乾船塢以增加戰爭期間基隆
港的運輸力。

Due to the ever-rising volume of shipping, a third phase of
construction was launched in 1929 (Showa Year 4), during
which the scope of facility development was extended to
include the outer harbor, while the inner harbor was
reorganized to handle purely commercial operations, and
fishing ports were built at Sheliao Island (present-day
Hoping Island) and Pachihmen. The fourth phase of
construction was entered into in 1935 (Showa Year 10).
Under the influence of Japan's Southward Policy and
subsequent war in the Pacific, and in order to augment
Keelung Harbor's shipping capacity during the war years,
additional seawalls were built closer to the entrance of
the outer harbor on its east and west sides, and a
large-scale dry dock facility was constructed on Sheliao
Island.

46年的築港過程將基隆港由一個漁村型態的
港灣推向國際性的現代化港口,對基隆港的
居民而言,不僅帶來了蓬勃的商機,更重要
的,也促成基隆市街的改善。


Over this 46-year construction period, Keelung Harbor was
catapulted from its original status as hardly more than a
fishing village into the ranks of a modernized seaport on a
par with world standards. For the people of Keelung, this
development brought not only flourishing business opportunities
but, more importantly, accelerated improvement of the city's
system of streets.



基隆港口都市的空間發展歷程

擁有日治時期全台最精進的港口設備,基隆
港所吞吐的貨物量激增,原本以服務戎克船
為主的傳統基隆市街已不符合使用,需要有
快速的陸上運輸系統來進行貨物的接駁,加
上原本地勢低漥的市街地層在海岸碼頭築砌
之後,排水更加困難,因此為了改良市街衛
生狀況,環境的整頓勢在必行,於是在「台
北基隆市區計畫委員會」的認可下,西元
1907年(明治40年)基隆實施了第一次的市
區改正計畫,在填高之後的市街地盤上規劃
棋盤式街廓系統,並興建公園、學校、市場
、運河等都市公共設施。西岸規劃為港務專
用區,包含深水碼頭、倉儲設備及火車站等
皆位於此區,而南岸大基隆及東岸小基隆填
埋新生地則作為市街使用。



Developmental process of Keelung's urban space

In possession of the most advanced port facilities in Japanese
colonial Taiwan, and experiencing a tremendous increase in
the volume of goods which it swallowed and spit out, the
traditional streets of the Keelung which had once been a mere
service station for passing junks were no longer suited to
the port's needs. Given the need to establish a high-speed
land-based transportation network for shipping goods to and
away from the port, and because after construction of the docks
ground water under the low-lying streets became even harder
to expel, revamping of the environment to improve both city
roads and public sanitation had become an imperative.
Consequently, with the approval of the Taipei-Keelung
Municipal Planning Commission, Keelung launched into its
first-ever urban renewal project in 1907 (Meiji Year 40).
After filling in lower-lying downtown areas, a grid-like
road system was instituted, in addition to contruction
projects for such public municipal facilities as parks,
schools, markets, and canals. The harbor's western shore
was designated as a special zone reserved for harbor
affairs. Deep-water docks, warehousing facilities and
train station were all located in this zone. New
land created by landfills along the harbor's southern
shore, or "Big Keelung," and its eastern shore, or
"Little Keelung," were earmarked for new road construction.




對基隆人來說,這一階段的築港工程及市區
改正的確造成生活型態上巨大的改變,是基
隆港近代化最重要的奠基時期,目前基隆內
港的都市空間大抵遵循此一土地使用架構。
之後於西元1921(大正10年)及西元1937年
(昭和12年)分別進行了市區擴張計畫及都
市計畫,公共設施興築及土地建築管理的範
圍隨著築港的範圍往外港延伸,都市脫離了
初期實施市區改正的混亂與貧乏而逐漸步上
軌道,基隆港的商機帶來大量的移入人口,
基隆市因此擠入全台大都市之列,但西元
1937年公佈的基隆都市計畫尚來不及全盤實
施即因太平洋戰爭而擱置,未能看到另一次
基隆港市大幅轉型的景象。

For the people of Keelung, the aforementioned period of port
construction plus urban renewal most definitely had a huge
ameliorative impact on living conditions, constituting the
most important period in Keelung's modernization process.
And basically speaking, to this day districts hugging the
inner harbor area continue to operate within the framework
established at that time. Later, in 1921 (Taisho Year 10)
and in 1937 (Showa Year 12) respectively, municipal expansion
and city planning programs were embarked upon, as the
consequence of which, the scopes of public infrastructure
construction and land management were extended to the outer
harbor regions. By then, the city had finally emerged from
the turmoil and confusion of the urban renewal years, and
city life gradually moved forward on an even keel. Business
opportunities offered by Keelung attracted large numbers of
newcomers, promoting Keelung into the ranks of Taiwan's
major metropolises. Before the city planning project initiated
in 1937 could be fully implemented, however, it had to be
put off due to the outbreak of the Pacific war, and since
then, there have been no comparably large-scale alterations in
appearance of harbor and city.


基隆港市在歷經清朝劉銘傳及日治時期台灣
總督府的積極建設,其海運地位躍升為全台
之首,市街空間及生活品質也逐步提昇,為
現今的基隆港市奠下了重要的發展根基,更
發展出了港與市共生共榮的緊密關係,但因
市區腹地有限,目前基隆港市的發展遇到了
瓶頸,期望未來港市的合作能在尊重基隆人
文歷史及自然景觀的前提下,將基隆港推向
另一個生命的高峰,讓這個美麗的海港山城
再次成為台灣人驕傲的奇景。

Thanks to the active construction efforts beginning with Ch'ing
Dynasty Governor Liu Ming-chuan and progressing onward
with projects promoted by the Viceroy's Office during the
Japanese colonial era, the harbor and city of Keelung mounted
to the top rank of maritime cities in Taiwan, and its
streets and spaces plus its quality of life were also
steadily enhanced, thus setting the foundation for present-day
Keelung's ongoing development, and evolving an organic
intimacy between harbor operations and city life beneficial
to their mutual prosperity. Keelung's future development has
now come to a bottleneck, however, owning to space limitations.
Let us hope that future collaboration between harbor districts
and city-at-large can, on the basis of respect for Keelung's
cultural legacy and natural environment, uplift it to a new
peak in its life, enabling this gem of an ocean harbor cum
mountain-embraced metropolis to reclaim its reputation as a
wondrous vista of which all Taiwan's people can be proud.


Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by James Decker
李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯
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