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反抗與歸順 - 臺灣原住民的歷史容顏
The History of Keelung Harbor

詹素娟/Chan Su-chuan
(中央研究院臺灣史研究所籌備處 / 助理研究員)
(Assistant Research Fellow, Preparatory Office, Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica)

2001-11-05


Final surrender of Bunung tribal leader Laho Ahmei
(Courtesy of Yuan-liou Publishing Co., Ltd.)

日治時代五十年,臺灣的山地原住民--特別
是泰雅族與布農族,曾發生多次可歌可泣的
抗日行動,讓日人視之猶如肉中刺、眼中釘
般,欲去之而後快。在悠遠的歷史長河中,
激起陣陣漣漪的著名英雄有:布農族的拉荷
‧阿雷、拉瑪達‧星星,與泰雅族的莫那‧
魯道。本週台灣歷史之窗特別邀請中央研究
院臺灣史研究所籌備處助理研究員詹素娟執
筆,述說這頁悲壯的史詩之始末及其歷史意
義。


Over the half century of the Japanese colonial era, Taiwan
Aborigines residing in mountain regions, especially the Taiya
and Bunung tribespeople, undertook many heart-rending actions
in resistance against Japanese rule, making the Japanese to
view them as thorn in their sides and determine to remove
them. A few of the better-known heroes who set a series of
ripples into motion in this stream of history included Bunung
tribesmen Raho Ari and Lamado Hsinghsing, and Mona Ludao
of the Taiya tribe. For this week's Window on Taiwan, the
Taiwan News has invited Chan Su-chuan, Assistant Research
Fellow of Academia Sinica Institute of Taiwan History
(Preparatory Office) to recount this tragic epic from its
inception to it denouement and discuss its historical
significance.


領有臺灣二百年的大清帝國,一直未能全面
控有今花蓮、臺東兩縣的東臺灣,更無法進
入中央山地。因此,中央山脈一線以東的原
住民,遂能在帝國邊陲固守傳統社會文化,
保有獨立自主的族群地位。然而,此種情勢
卻在政權易幟後,遭日本軍警以優勢現代化
武力,及通電鐵條網、警備道、駐在所等設
施與勢力包圍下,產生鉅大的變化。




Over the two centuries during which the Ch'ing Empire was
in possession of Taiwan, it was never able to extend its
control into the region of eastern Taiwan constituting
present-day Hualien and Taitung counties, let alone into
Taiwan's central mountain regions. Hence, Aborigines east
of Taiwan's central mountain spine were able to preserve
their traditional society and culture and maintain the
independent, autonomous statuses of their tribes. After
the the Ch'ing government's ceding of territorial sovereignty
to Japan, however, the encroachment of Japanese soldiers and
police into these regions, with their superior modern
weaponry, telegraph networks, security cordons and police
outposts, brought about a major transformation of
circumstances.


拉荷‧阿雷

布農族的抵抗,肇因於大正三年(1914)實施
於東部和南部原住民地區的「銃器收押」政
策。總督府為有效控制原住民的強悍武力,
強行沒收族人賴以狩獵為生的獵槍;在日警
毫無轉圜餘地的強硬執行下,迫使布農族人
殺警奪槍,造成一連串衝突、鎮壓、安撫與
勦滅的事件。


Raho Ari

The Bunung resistance movement began in response to
implementation of the weapons confiscation policy in
eastern and southern Taiwan in Year 3 of the Taisho
Imperial Era (1914). In order to bring the fearsome armed
might of the Aborigines under effective control, the
Viceroy's Office undertook a program of forced confiscation
of hunting rifles which the tribesmen depended upon for
hunting. The Japanese police's uncompromising execution
of that policy prompted the Bunung people to kill
policemen and take their guns, leading to a series of
conflicts and suppression, pacification and extermination
actions.



拉荷‧阿雷是布農族大分部落(今南投縣信義
鄉境內)的頭目。他對日警誘騙拉庫拉溪流域
布農壯丁集體前往花蓮機場參觀,卻趁各部
落呈空虛狀態,逕行搜刮獵槍的行為極感憤
怒,遂在大正四年(1915),與其弟阿里曼‧
希堅率五十六名族人襲擊大分駐在所,將日
警全部擊斃。此役,拉荷‧阿雷且親自手刃
七名日警。之後,拉荷‧阿雷家族藏身荖濃
溪上游的塔馬荷,建立日警無法到達的基地
;臺東、花蓮兩廳的族人,紛紛遠來投靠,
拉荷‧阿雷遂逐漸擁有二十七戶、二六六人
的勢力,與日警展開長達二十年的抵抗生涯



Raho Ari was chief of the Bunung settlement of Tafen in
the region of present-day Hsinyi Prefecture of Nantou
County. He was enraged by the Japanese police's stratagem
of tricking the able-bodied men in the Lakula Creek region
to tour an airport in Hualien so that the police could
search their villages while in weakened state and seize
their hunting rifles. Consequently, in Taisho Year 4
(1915), he and his younger brother Ariman Shiken led 56
tribesmen in an attack on the police outpost at Tafen,
killing all of the policemen there. In this action Laho
Ahmei is said to have personally dispatched 7 policemen
with his blade. Afterward, his clan went into hiding at
Tamaho in the upper reaches of the Laonung Creek,
establishing there a base inaccessible to the Japanese
police. Tribesmen hastened from great distances in Taitung
Ting and Hualien Ting ["ting" being a large administrative
district of the time] to join forces with him, eventually
comprising a community of 27 clans and 266 people, who
launched a 20-year-long war of resistance against the
Japanese police.


拉瑪達‧星星

與拉荷‧阿雷同時的另一位布農英雄,是新
武呂溪流域下馬谷社(今臺東縣海端鄉)霧鹿
地區的拉瑪達‧星星,日警眼中的「凶蕃之
王」、「臺東廳理蕃之癌的梟雄」。



Ramata Yanyan

Another Bunung hero contemporaneous with Laho Ahmei was
Ramata Yanyan of the Wulu area of Ebako She ["she" being
a smaller district within a "ting"] in the Hsinwulu Creek
basin, corresponding with present-day Haijui Prefecture in
Taitung County. In the eyes of the Japanese police, he was
regarded as "king of the ferocious barbarians" and as a
"bold knave, the bane of barbarian managment in Taitung
Ting."



拉瑪達‧星星除勇猛善戰外,兼有頭腦靈活
、擅於智謀的長處,其飄忽不定的行動,令
日警大感頭痛;臺東廳警務課長淺野義雄,
甚至譽之為原住民中的北條早雲(日本一著
名忍者)。大正三年(1914),拉瑪達‧星星
在襲殺新武呂駐在所日警後,率族人逃到大
崙溪上游高山深處的「伊加諾萬」躲藏。十
數年間,從未有日警能夠進入「伊加諾萬」
;直到昭和四(1929)年,日軍參謀本部的陸
地測量部仍因無法進入此區,而在高山實測
地圖上的這一帶留下空白,為臺東廳唯一尚
未歸順的地區。


Besides being a courageous and fearsome warrior, Ramata
Yanyan had a lively intelligence and was skilled in
tactics, his hit-and-run movements causing great
headaches for the Japanese police. The Taitung Ting Police
Chief Asano Yosio even went so far as to compare him with
Hozio Soun, a famed Japanese ninja. In Taisho Year 3
(1914), after attacking and killing policemen at the
Japanese police station in Hsinwulu, Ramata Yanyan led
tribesmen into the deep mountains of the Talun Creek
region to hide out in an area called Ichianomai. For
well over a decade, no Japanese police were able to
penetrate this area. In Showa Year 4 (1929) a land
surveying team attached to the Japanese General Staff was
still unable to access the region, leaving it blank on
their high-mountain survey map, representing the only
region in Taitung Ting which had not yet come under
Japanese control.

拉馬達‧星星以「伊加諾萬」為基地,出沒
八通關越警備道及附近各地,並率族人襲擊
高雄州、花蓮廳、臺東廳新武呂溪方面的日
警。由於其在霧鹿警備線一帶頗具影響力,
能左右各部落的動向,日警遂對拉馬達‧星
星相當顧忌,深恐妄加討伐,會引起全面性
抵抗。因而一直對其採取懷柔政策,希望拉
瑪達‧星星能歸順投降。



From his base at Ichianomai, Ramata Yanyan would cross
the security cordon of Patungkuan and suddenly appear
and disappear in neighboring locales, leading tribesmen
in attacks on police in Kaohsiung Chou ["chou" being an
administrative region intermediate between "ting" and "she"],
Hualien Ting, and the Hsinwulu area of Taitung Ting. Because
he enjoyed considerable prestige in the region of the Wulu
security cordon and could influence the actions of the
neighboring Aboriginal communities, the Japanese police
were quite concerned about him and were afraid that if
they were too aggressive in hunting him down, it might
spark a full-scale uprising. For this reason they persisted
in applying a policy of moderation, hoping that Ramata
Yanyan would voluntarily surrender and submit to Japanese
rule.


Mona Lutao with fellow tribespeople (Courtesy of
Yuan-liou Publishing Co., Ltd.)

莫那‧魯道

莫那‧魯道則是南投霧社的泰雅族賽德克人
。青少年時期的莫那‧魯道,即以剽悍聞名
;父親死後,繼任馬赫坡社新頭目,成為霧
社地區幾個具影響力的領導人物之一。


Mona Rudao

Mona Rudao was a Taiya tribesman of the Sedeq sub-tribe in
the Wushe region of present-day Nantou County. In his youth
he was known for his truculent nature. Upon his father's
death, he succeeded him as chief of the Mahebo She tribal
region, thus becoming one of the most influential leaders
in the larger Wushe region.


大正元年(1911),莫那‧魯道曾經前往日本
參觀。在這趟旅行中,他看到日本警察對待
人民的溫和態度;對照之下,特別感受到殖
民地「理蕃警察」的暴戾與差別對待。昭和
五(1930)年,日人計畫在霧社興建學校宿舍
,馬赫坡社負責搬運木材;在工資低廉、扛
運大木等如勞役般辛苦工作之餘,馬赫坡社
人對日人竟在布農狩獵區及祖先發源地砍伐
木材,極感憤怒。此是公憤,加上長子敬酒
被辱、妹妹遭日人遺棄等私仇,莫那‧魯道
遂在十月二十七日上午,率三百多人突襲霧
社公學校聯合運動會,殺死日人一三四名之
多,史稱「霧社事件」。事件發生後,日人
發動大批軍警、派出多架飛機進入霧社,力
圖鎮壓反叛。莫那‧魯道眼見己方傷亡慘重
,無力抵抗,先下令家人集體自盡;並為了
不讓敵人取走自己首級,而走入深山以長槍
自殺。

In Taisho Year 1 (1911), Mona Rudao paid a visit to Japan.
During his journey, he noted the kindly manner in which the
police treated the people, thus becoming more sensitized to
the brute force and discriminatory treatment meted out by
the Taiwan colonial "barbarian management police." In Showa
Year 5 (1930) the Japanese planned to erect a school and
dormitory in Wushe, with the people of Mahepo She serving
as porters of timber. Besides the scanty wages and
difficulty of the work which made them feel like slave
laborers, they were extremely incensed at the Japanese'
felling trees in their tribal hunting grounds and
ancestral lands. Due to this pubic outrage and out of
personal desire for revenge for an insult to his eldest
son when offering a toast to the Japanese and for his
younger sister's being abandoned by her Japanese husband,
on October 27, Mona Rudao led more than 300 tribesmen in a
surprise attack upon Japanese in attendance at an athletic
meet held at Wushe Public School, killing 134 Japanese --
the event referred to in history books as the "Wushe
Incident." In the aftermath of the event, the Japanese
sent a large contingent of soldiers, police and military
aircraft to Wushe to put down the rebellion. Seeing that
his people had suffered heavy casualties and had become
powerless to resist, Mona Rudao ordered his clan to
commit mass suicide, and, in order not to deprive the
enemy of his head, he made his way into the deep mountains
where he committed suicide with a spear.

原住民英雄投降、殉死,日人山地統治史揭
開新頁

這三位原住民英雄,各有不同下場。拉荷‧
阿雷在關山越警戰道完成後,知道大勢已去
,而於昭和八(1933)年接受安撫,歸順總督
府。在比鼻烏(今高雄縣桃源鄉復興村)終老
,以九十高齡結束一生。



The end of Aborigine resistance and consolidation of Japanese
rule

These three Aborigine heroes ultimately met with different
fates. After the Japanese had fully established a tight
security ring in Kuanshan, Laho Ahmei came to realize that
he had already lost the advantage. So, in Showa Year 8
(1933), he submitted to Japanese colonial rule, passing
his waning years in Pipiwu (present-day Fuhsing Village
in Taoyuan Prefecture, Kaohsiung County) and dying at the
age of 90.




不願歸順的拉瑪達‧星星,率族人多次襲擊
警所、殺死日人;並在發生大關山事件後,
引起官府極度重視。最後,在日方組成含警
察八十八人、築路工人一百四十名的搜索隊
強力搜捕下,終於昭和七(1932)年與長子、
四子等一起被捕,並在年底處死。



Recalcitrant Ramata Yanyan repeatedly carried out raids on
police outposts and killed Japanese, provoking great
official concern as the consequence of the Takuanshan
Incident. Finally, after a determined search for him by
a contingent of 88 police and 140 road construction workers,
he was apprehended in Showa Year 7 (1932) along with his
eldest son, fourth son and others and was executed at year's
end.




遁入深山自殺的莫那‧魯道,其遺骸卻在昭
和八(1933)年被日人意外尋獲。日人為求洩
恨,竟將遺骸在展覽會公開展示,隨後又送
到臺北帝國大學作為學術研究標本。直到
1974年,莫那‧魯道才得以遷葬霧社,入土
為安。

The skeleton of Mona Rudao, who had fled into the deep
mountains and committed suicide, was stumbled upon by a
Japanese in Showa Year 8 (1933). Out of revenge, his
skeleton was put on public display at an exhibition,
following which it was sent to Taipei Imperial University
[forerunner of National Taiwan University] as a research
specimen. It was not until 1974 that Mona Rudao's remains
were finally returned to for burial and could rest in peace.


拉荷‧阿雷的歸順,日人特地舉辦盛大儀式
,昭告世人。大關山事件後,日警展現強大
武力,積極施行「集團移住」,強迫布農村
社離開高山故居,遷移到警戒線內,以便管
束。霧社事件後,日人檢討原因,對泰雅族
更採分別壓制、懷柔撫化的策略。此後,日
本統治者在中央山地的勢力,得能徹底建立
;原住民與臺灣總督府的關係,自此進入新
階段。

When Raho Ari submitted to Japanese rule, the Japanese held
a grand ceremony to dramatize the event. After the
Takuanshan Incident, the Japanese police deployed strong
armed forces and actively carried out "group relocation,"
forcing Bunung village communities to vacate their former
high-mountain habitats and move within security cordons to
facilitate control of them. After the Wushe Incident, the
Japanese investigated its causes and subsequently adopted
a policy toward the Taiya people of selective suppression
balanced by benign pacification. From that time forward,
extension of Japanese rule over the central mountain
regions was consummated, and the relationship between the
Aborigines and the Japanese colonial government entered a
new phase.


 

Viewpoint has a weekly feature every Monday entitled "Window
on Taiwan," This weekly feature is produced with guidance
from the Ministry of Education, and is sponsored jointly
by the Institute for National Development, the Taiwan
Historical Association and the Taiwan News. The invaluable
historical photographs in this article were published by
Yuan-liou Publishing Co. Ltd. in the book "Taiwan Take it
Easy, Vol. 5: The Aborigines of Taiwan"


Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by James Decker
李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯
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