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記憶臺灣百年棒球之戀
Taiwan + Baseball: A century-old love affair

謝仕淵/Hsieh Shih-yuan
(中央大學歷史研究所研究生)
2001-11-12


臺灣人對棒球的著迷,不僅源於歷史脈絡、
文化淵源,更夾雜著深厚的感情因素。誠如
知名的運動社會學研究者Norbert Elias所指
出的「認識運動,就是對社會的認識」。因
此,認識棒球,也就是對臺灣社會的認識,
此因棒球傳入、流行乃至深植人心已百年。
棒球的歷史事實上也側寫了一部屬於臺灣人
的歷史。本週台灣歷史之窗特別邀請中央大
學歷史研究所研究生謝仕淵執筆,由日治時
期棒球運動的傳入談起,述說百年來台灣棒
球運動的興衰,及其在台灣人生活中所扮演
的角色與意義。


The Taiwan people's ardor for the sport of baseball not
only stems from the particular pattern of their historical
cum cultural evolution but in the shared "heart" of the
Taiwanese. As well-known sports sociologist Norbert Elias
has observed, through the understanding of sport one comes
to understand human society. By the same token, we can get
insights into Taiwan society by understanding how it has
come to occupy a central place in its collective heart.
Indeed, the history of baseball in Taiwan is a unifying
thread running through the contemporary history of its
people. This week's Window on Taiwan invites Hsieh
Shih-yuan, graduate reseacher at the Central University
Graduate School of History to recount the past century
of twists and turns in the saga of baseball in Taiwan
since it was first introduced during the Japanese
colonial era and the role it has played in the lives
of Taiwanese.


「棒球風雲」再起的2001年

數年前,職棒簽賭醜聞的揭露使台灣棒球迷
心碎不已,台灣民眾的棒球熱沉寂了好些時
日。然而2001年伊始----也就是去年陳水扁
總統所宣佈的棒球年----我們卻目睹了一場
台灣世紀棒球戀的戲劇化復活。今年初,台
灣主辦了亞洲盃棒球錦標賽以及亞洲盃三級
棒球錦標賽, 台灣隊並且雙雙奪魁。今年10
月,沈潛數年、陣中多半是新人的兄弟象職
棒隊,竟在不被看好的情形下,一路過關斬
將奪得第十二屆中華職棒總冠軍,球迷興奮
、激動至極。而在這一連串令人振奮的事件
之後,最後的高潮是11月6日起,為期13天
的世界盃棒球錦標賽首度在台開打。臺灣徵
召了職業與業餘、海內與海外的棒球菁英,
組織一支實力強勁的棒球隊,力求能在世界
杯有所表現,以不負國人的期盼。兄弟象奪
冠與世界盃棒球賽的舉行,激起了台灣社會
許久未見的「棒球熱」,對臺灣而言,2001
年將是名符其實的「棒球年」。


2001: A year of baseball renaissance

After a long drought in the Taiwan public's enthusiasm
for the game of baseball, resulting from the heartbreak
inflicted by a gambling scandal in the ROC Professional
Baseball League several years back, the year 2001 --
officially proclaimed "Baseball Year" by President
Chen Shui-bian last year -- has witnessed a dramatic
resurgence of passion in the Taiwan people's century-long
sweet-and-sour love affair with the sport. Earlier this
year, Taiwan played host to the Asian Baseball
Championship and triple-A Asian Championship
tournaments, the home teams winning first place in
both. In October of this year, Taiwan sports fans
were electrified by the Brothers Elephants baseball
team [owned by the Brothers Hotel in Taipei], who,
after a string of of dismal seasons, and with a lineup
composed mostly of unfamiliar new faces given no hope
at the outset of the season, blasted their way to the
12th Professional Baseball League championship title.
And now, to climax this chain of events, the 13-day
Baseball World Cup tournament kicked off on November
6, for the first time in Taiwan. To assure that the
Taiwan team would be a strong contender of which
Taiwan can be proud, the cream of professional and
amateur Taiwan-born players were recruited from home
and abroad. Together, this chain of events has fired
a renewed "baseball fever" in Taiwan society
unprecedented over the recent several years, making
2001 live up to its designation as Baseball Year.




棒球運動的傳入與普及

棒球所以風靡臺灣,無非是因百年來臺灣人
與棒球之間的密切關係。十九、二十世紀之
交,初到臺灣未久的日本官員以及一些會社
的職員引進了棒球運動。初始,棒球是屬於
日本人特有的運動,因此當時被起了個日本
式的名稱----「野球」;「野球」不僅意味
著棒球的日本化詮釋,同時也體現了殖民者
的優越感,身為被統治者的台灣人並不被鼓
勵參與棒球運動。另一方面,文化的差異也
拉遠了認知的距離;台灣人對於揮舞著棒子
、滿場檢球的棒球運動甚為不解,更談不上
「玩棒球」的興趣。



Birth and spread of baseball in Taiwan

The reason for baseball's society-wide popularity is
explainable only in terms of the intimate relationship
which has existed between the Taiwanese and baseball
over the past century. Baseball was introduced into
Taiwan at the cusp of the 19th and 20th centuries by
newly arrived Japanese administrators and company
employees. At first, baseball in Taiwan was a sport
played exclusively by the Japanese, for which reason
it was referred to in that era by its Japanese name --
yakyu, or "fieldball." Use of name yakyu not only implied
Japanification of the sport but, in Taiwan, intimated a
sense of ethnic superiority on the part of the colonial
rulers, inasmuch as they did not encourage their
Taiwanese subjects to join the fun. In addition,
cultural differences widened the gap in understanding:
The Taiwanese utterly lacked appreciation of a sport
where someone brandished a stick and people crowded
round to watch a ball, much less did they have any
inclination to "play ball" themselves.



一九二○年代左右,「野球」本身的趣味性
與競爭感以及台灣運動觀念的日漸普及,棒
球衝破文化的隔閡與殖民的優越的意涵,成
為「大人」到「囝仔」皆積極參與的運動,
不論頂港或下港、前山或後山,台灣各地棒
球運動興盛,島內與島外的棒球交流更是頻
繁。1931年,嘉義農林學校進軍日本高中棒
球賽最高殿堂---甲子園全日本高校野球賽,
同時榮獲亞軍,更是台灣棒球運動史上燦爛
的一刻。嘉農的成就,意味著在「公平」的
競賽制度下,「台灣人擊敗日本人」不僅是
一種可能、更是一種超越殖民藩籬、擷取台
灣人榮耀的手段。比賽結束時的喝采、棒球
員的汗水,映照著一齣齣打敗殖民者的精彩
戲碼。



During the 1920s, the special appeal and competitive
spirit of yakyu, along with the Taiwan people's sport
consciousness, became increasingly widespread, and
baseball broke free of its cultural-gap and Japanese-
chauvinist symbolism, becoming a sport in which native
Taiwanese toa-lang and kin-na ["adults" and "children"]
alike were active. Be it in tiang-kang or e-kang , in
chiang-soa or au-soa [literally: "upper harbor," "lower
harbor," "front-of-mountain" and "back-of-mountain" --
the then-popular Taiwanese expressions, respectively,
for northern, southern, western, and eastern Taiwan, the
latter two names reflecting the fact that nearly all
Taiwanese of Han-Chinese ancestry were concentrated on
the western side of the island's central north-south
mountain chain], the sport of baseball experienced a
lively development, and, notably, "baseball exchanges"
between native islanders and Japanese newcomers became
popular. In1931, the Chiayi School of Agriculture and
Forestry, or "Chia Nung," for short, fought its way to
the apex of high school baseball competition in the
Japanese Empire -- the Pan-Japanese High School Yakyu
Tournament held in Koshiyen -- in which they won 2nd
place, constituting one of the most glorious moments
in the history of Taiwan baseball. This accomplishment
of Chia Nung was symbolic of the reality that, given an
"even playing field," Taiwanese victory over the Japanese
was not merely a possibility but was a way of soaring
above the "barbarian fence" erected by the Japanese and
garnering glory for the Taiwan people. The moment when,
as the curtain fell on the competition, spectators roared
their approval for the sweat-drenched Taiwan players
shines on even to this day as a classic scene of the
oppressed defeating the colonial oppressor.



被邊緣化的國府來台初期

1945年終戰之後,臺灣的政權易主,國民政
府的仇日心結表現在文教與生活習俗上的「
去日本化」措施,於是「野球」更名為「棒
球」。「去日本化」的措施不僅意味著政府
不鼓勵棒球運動,族群的分佈更重畫了島內
的棒球地圖;舉例來說,外省新住民居住比
例較高的台北地區,棒球發展就略遜於台灣
其他地區。因此戰後初期的棒球運動不僅因
政治介入而被邊緣化,棒球也標示了族群的
界限,呈現棒球族群化的傾向。



A marginalized government marginalizes baseball

In the wake of China's postwar reassertion of sovereignty
over Taiwan in 1945, the Kuomintang government's residual
anti-Japanese animus was manifested in the guise of
"de-Japanification" measures in the realms of culture,
education and daily life -- including dumping the
Japanese name kakyu in favor of the Mandarin Chinese
expression pangchiu, or "batball." De-Japanification
meant in effect not only a reluctance of the governmental
to encourage baseball but a redrawing of the island's
"baseball geography" along lines of ethnic-group
distribution. For instance, in the Taipei metropolitan
area, where a relatively high concentration of newly
arrived mainland Chinese emigres took up residence,
development of baseball was retarded in comparison
with other regions. Hence, baseball in early postwar
Taiwan not only became marginalized by the intrusion
of politics but showed a tendency toward becoming
"ethnicized," constituting a sort of borderline
between peoples.


但台灣人對棒球的熱情卻從未淡化,一九五
○、六○年代,政經情勢相對穩定的美援時
期,從島內金融行庫業餘棒球隊的對陣,到
1968年來自台東的紅葉少棒擊敗世界冠軍日
本和歌山隊的優異表現,牽引台灣人的心隨
著經濟成長而起飛。



The Taiwan people's ardor for baseball was never
waned, however. Over the politically and economically
more stable period of the 1950s and 1960s, from
banking personnel's organization of amateur baseball
teams to the Taitung City's Hung Yeh (Red Leaf)
Little League team's virtuoso defeat of the world
champion Wakayama team from Japan, their zeal for
the sport took flight along with the economy.


披上國族主義的戰袍

一九七○年代,中華民國退出聯合國、中美
斷交等外交危機接踵而來。國民政府因此發
動一連串重振國人信心的運動,棒球因此成
為精神動員的一環。1969年到1982年之間,
台灣在世界少棒賽一共奪得十三次的世界少
棒冠軍。每到決戰時刻,精彩的比賽總是使
臺灣人不敢入睡,目不轉睛的為中華隊加油
;夜半時分,家家戶戶守候在電視機前的景
觀,成為一九七○年代台灣社會的奇觀。政
府對冠軍球隊的重視,及老老少少「中華隊
加油!」的呼喊聲,意味著國族主義動員台
灣「棒球熱」的斧鑿痕跡。一九七○年代的
「少棒旋風」既幫助台灣渡過信心危機、超
越族群界限,無限上綱的國族主義更賦予了
棒球幾近「國球」的榮銜。



Donning the warrior dress of nationalistic pride

Come the 1970s, the Republic of China withdrew from the
United Nations and broke off diplomatic relations with
the United States [in reaction to U.S. recognition of
the People's Republic of China and the latter's imminent
admission into the U.N.]. As a consequence, the KMT
government of the time launched a series of activities
aimed at bolstering the people's confidence, baseball
becoming one focus of this spiritual mobilization.
Between 1969 and 1982, Taiwan won 13 World Little League
Championships. Every year when the championship
tournament rolled around, the thrilling contests made it
impossible for Taiwan's people to go to sleep, staying
up late intent on cheering the home team. The midnight
gathering of family members in every household across
the nation to witness the live-broadcast television
spectacle became the amazing phenomenon of Taiwan society
in the 70s. The attention given by the government to
champion teams and the roars of "ROC Go! Go!" by everyone
from the youngest to the oldest brought to Taiwan's
"baseball fever" a smack of fervent nationalistic pride.
In this way, the little league whirlwind of the 70s
helped Taiwan's people get through their crisis of
confidence and transcend internal ethnic divisions,
and the massive injection of nationalism, which was
raised to the highest plane, conferred upon baseball
the effective status of "nationalball."



一九八○年代起,台灣在世界各地颳起棒球
旋風,包括少棒、青少棒、青棒與成棒在內
「四級棒球」的優異表現,改變了世人對蕞
爾小島台灣的印象。1984年,成棒隊在洛杉
磯奧運勇奪銅牌的高潮,使台灣棒球實力獲
得世界公認;表現優異的球員更受到日本職
棒青睞,遠赴東瀛為國爭光。1988年,漢城
奧運失利,雖曾令人一度懷疑台灣的棒球實
力是否一蹶不振;但1992年巴塞隆納奧運的
銀牌,隨即重振台灣棒球王國的威名。因此
,棒球不僅凝結了島內台灣人的集體記憶,
更在世界舞台上打響台灣的名號。

During the 1980s, the whirlwind of attention created in
countries the world over by Taiwan's remarkable
performances in all four classes of amateur baseball --
elementary-level, junior-level, senior-level, and adult
leagues -- transformed the world's impression of the
tiny island nation of Taiwan. In the climactic event
of that decade, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics bronze
medal victory won by the adult team forced the world
to acknowledge Taiwan's solid clout in baseball. In
particular, their virtuosity attracted the attention
of Japanese professional baseball, as the result of
which several of them took their talents to Japan to
win further acclaim for their homeland. Although
Taiwan's demise in the 1988 Seoul Olympics led some
to wonder whether Taiwan's baseball power had been
irrecoverably eclipsed, its silver metal victory in
the 1992 Barcelona Olympics redeemed the Taiwan
baseball kingdom's vaunted reputation. Baseball
thus served not only to crystallize the Taiwan
people's collective remembrance of their common
road but to trumpet the name of Taiwan on the world
stage.

職棒聯盟成立

1990年,「中華職棒聯盟」成立,將台灣棒
球的運動型態由業餘帶向職業,棒球運動因
此成為資本主義社會的「文化工業」,是台
灣人休閒與消費生活的一環。精彩的職棒賽
,不僅吸引熱愛棒球的球迷入場、點燃棒球
迷的熱情,兄弟象對味全龍、乃至兄弟象與
統一獅的對決,往往吸引滿坑滿谷的觀眾。
場內競爭緊扣著球迷的心弦,場外便當與香
腸攤的叫賣,共同形塑台灣特有的棒球文化





Establishment of the ROC Professional Baseball League

In 1990, the ROC Professional Baseball League was born,
extending Taiwan baseball from the amateur into the
professional realm, transforming it into a "cultural
industry" branch in a capitalist society, a new venue
for its members' to spend their leisure time and money,
too. The excitement of professional competition succeeded
in attracting baseball fans to the diamonds and fanning
their passion for the sport. In particular, the
electrifying battles between the Brothers Elephants, the
Wei Chuan Dragons and the President Lions [the latter
two owned, respectively by Wei Chuan Foods Co. and
President Foods Co.] succeeded in drawing standing-room-only
capacity crowds. Attention-riveting action within the
stadiums and cries of boxed-meal and barbecued sausage
hawkers outside combined to form a baseball culture with
a unique Taiwan flavor.





黑道賭博介入職棒界

職棒球隊的相爭好比兩軍對壘,勢均力敵儼
然一副非分個你死我活的態勢,球迷有如入
戲的觀眾,為比賽而激動、而歡欣、而激憤
,乃至落淚。然而,能讓入戲觀眾傷心的無
非是作假的戲,職棒的簽賭案揭穿了不肖棒
球員的假面、傷透了棒球人(球員、球迷)
的心。利益當前,榮耀與自尊的棒球傳統被
棄之於腦後,台灣的棒球運動因此經歷數年
的黑暗期,直到今年才重現振興的契機。




Professional baseball desecrated by gangland gambling

Professional baseball engagements had the likeness of
epic battles between evenly-matched armies charged with
a grim fight-to-the-death determination. Like spectators
viewing a heart-gripping drama, baseball fans were
emotionally transfixed, swinging between extremes of
rapture to rage, even to the point of tears. What really
tore the hearts out of baseball players and fans alike,
however, was the high drama's degeneration into farcical
sham, when in 1997 a gambling scandal ripped the masks
off a number of two-faced baseball players. Lured by the
temptation of personal profit and turning their backs on
Taiwan's shining, high-principled baseball tradition,
these rotten apples plunged Taiwan baseball into a
multi-year dark age from which it has only this year
had the chance to recover.





永遠不死的棒球熱

或許有人會問:棒球的魅力在哪裡?安靜靦
靦的小女孩能在棒球場上聲嘶力竭為自己心
儀的球員加油,落寞失意的中年男子,能夠
「嘴角全波」的講解場中戰術,不正是棒球
的魅力所在。唯有令人百感交集的棒球才能
釋放屬於「正港」台灣人的深摯情感。棒球
雖曾令人心碎,但台灣人卻從未對棒球心死
,今天的失敗只為了襯托未來成功的喜悅。
棒球如此,台灣的未來也是如此。


Incurable baseball fever

Perhaps some will ask: In what does baseball's charm
lie? It lies, quite simply, in its power to make an
otherwise quiet, timid little girl yell herself hoarse
in support of her own admired players, or to make a
forlorn, downcast middle-aged man rave in wild zeal
as he explains the right play strategy. Only baseball,
evocative of so many feelings, possesses that power to
release the deep emotions of "real McCoy" Taiwanese.
Although baseball has broken their hearts, their love
for the game has never died. Today's failure only
serves as an offset for the ecstasy of future success.
So has it been for baseball; so too will it prove for
the future of Taiwan.



Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by James Decker
李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯
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