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玉山與台灣人的認同歷史
A history of Yu Shan and Taiwan identity

戴寶村/Tai Pao-tsun
2001-11-19


玉山是在群山之中的高山,每年積雪期可連
續達四個月,其高峻與晶亮的形象,反映在
台灣漢人及原住民的認知傳說中具有多種面
貌。玉山不僅是群岳顛峰,也是大河之源,
它是台灣最長的溪流──濁水溪,以及荖濃
溪和楠梓仙溪等溪流的發源地。如此集神話
傳說與地理重要性於一身的東北亞最高峰,
在台灣人的心目中,它曾是遙不可及的形象
,亦曾是殖民者與統治者彰顯其權力的象徵
。一九八五年,玉山國家公園正式成立,山
川百越得以褪去政治圖騰的外衣,還其自然
本貌,讓台灣人民親身貼近與感受它。本週
台灣歷史之窗特別邀請中央大學歷史系教授
戴寶村執筆,闡析玉山在歷史中所扮演的角
色,及其作為台灣人認同意象的變遷過程。


Yu Shan [literally "Jade Mountain"] is the highest peak in
Taiwan's mountain ranges, crowned with snow up to 4 months
out of the year. It's vaulting, glittering image has been
reflected in a variety of different guises within the
self-defining legends of the Han people and Aborigines in
Taiwan. Besides being the highest peak in the island's
mount chains, it is also the source of a large river,
and Taiwan's longest, the Chuoshui River, as well as of
the smaller Laonung and Nantzuhsien Rivers. In the minds
of Taiwan's people, it has sometimes has been a faraway,
unreachable presence, and sometimes has been symbolic of
colonialists and alien rulers assertion of power. With
the formal establishment of Yu Shan National Park in
1985, Taiwan's mountains and rivers could finally shed
their external clothing of political scheming and resume
their natural face, enabling the Taiwan people to come
closer in spirit to them and feel their beneficent power.
This week's Window on Taiwan has invited Professor Tai
Pao-tsun to recount the various roles Yu Shan has played
in Taiwan's history and the evolutionary process of its
symbolization of the Taiwan people's sense of identity.


台灣是一多山的海島,全島絕對高度高於
1000公尺的土地面積占32﹪,山區高度在
3000公尺以上的高山超過200座,其中玉山
山塊的主峰玉山高達3952公尺,為全國最高
峰,亦為東北亞最高峰。台灣面積約36000
平方公里,卻有高度接近4000公尺的高山,
在世界各國中國土面積與山嶽高度對比的情
形是獨一無二的現象。


Taiwan is a mountainous ocean island, with land at an
elevation exceeding 1000 occupying 32% of its total
area and 200 mountains exceeding 3000 meters in height,
among which Yu Shan [Jade Mountain], the main peak in
the Yu Shan mountain group, reaches a height of 3952
meters -- the highest peak in the nation and highest
peak in northeast Asia. Having an area of only about
36000 square kilometers, yet having mountains reaching
upwards of 4000 meters high, Taiwan is unique among the
world's countries for this contrast between national
area and mountain range altitude.




清代漢人傳說中的神山

在清代漢人眼中,玉山是可望而不可及的遙
遠意象,形諸文字往往具有神奇傳說色彩。
郁永河在1697年的《裨海紀遊》〈番境補遺
〉中對玉山的敘述是:「玉山…白色如銀…
;皆言此山渾然美玉,番人既不知寶,外人
又畏野番,莫敢向邇。」1837年柯培元在《
噶瑪蘭志略》中記錄當地原住民口述的玉山
之行:「一路深林密箐,蛇虺向人噴火,…
時有怪鳥異獸出沒林間,…仰視峰間一圓洞
如門,白氣騰空,精光射目,…據此則玉山
石盡水晶矣。」玉山的積雪景象被珍奇化,
遙遠未知則被附會而加以神怪化。




A sacred mountain in Ch'ing Dynasty Han legend

In the eyes of Ch'ing Dynasty Hans [the predominant
"Chinese" ethnic group], Yu Shan was a visible but
unreachable, chimeric presence, literary descriptions
of it often having a fantastic coloration. In his 1697
book "Beneficent Sea Journey Chronicle," in the
appended essay entitled "Barbarian Territory Addendum,"
Yu Yung-ho says of Yu Shan, "Yu Shan...silvery white...It
is commonly said that it is made entirely of lovely jade,
the barbarians ignorant of its value; while those on its
periphery fear the savage barbarians, not daring to
approach it." In his 1837 book "Kemalan Annals," Ko
Pei-yuan recorded local Aborigines' account of a
journey in the vicinity of Yu Shan thusly: "Deep forests
and thick bamboo, venomous serpents spitting fire at
people...queer birds and strange beasts suddenly
appearing and disappearing in the forest...high up on
the peak a round door-like cave, white mist shooting
out into the sky, a pure light dazzling the eyes...By
their account, Yu Shan is crystal throughout. " Yu
Shan's crowning snow were eulogized and, due to its
distance and mystery, the mountain was exaggeratedly
described with supernatural embroidering.




八通關(發亮的山)--原住民的玉山情

鄒族原住民稱玉山為「Pattonkan」山,意
思是發亮的山或石英之山,漢字寫成「八通
關山」。布農族則有一則關於玉山的高山始
祖傳說,大意是祖先曾遭遇洪水而到玉山頂
上避難,因小米失落而缺糧,捕捉動物供作
食物,並由紅嘴黑鵯帶來火種而解圍。鄒族
對玉山發亮之指稱甚為具體,而布農族則進
一步建立地景與族群歷史的聯結。




Pattonkan ("Glimming Mountain") -- Aborigines' affection
for Yu Shan

The Chou tribespeople refer to Yu Shan as "Pattonkan,"
translatable as either "Glowing Mountain" or "Quartz
Mountain," transliterated into Chinese Hoklo dialect
as "Pat-tong-kuan." Bunung tribespeople, for their part,
have a legend about early high-mountain ancestors on Yu
Shan. In substance, the story relates that their
ancestors mounted to the peak of Yu Shan to seek refuge
from flood waters. Without food due to loss of millet,
they caught animals for sustenance, and were given
succor by a black bulbul which brought them embers to
light fires. While the Chou's characterization of Yu
Shan as "glowing" is a physical one, the Bunung have
gone a step further to interweave Yu Shan's physiognomy
with tribal history.




西方人對玉山的最早記載為19世紀末葉,美
國商船亞歷山大號船長W. Morrison出航安
平港發現玉山而記於航海日誌,之後,西方
人士便沿用Mt. Morrison之名來稱呼玉山。



Mt.Morrison

The earliest Wesstern record of Yu Shan dates from the
closing years of the 19th century. W. Morrison, captain
of the American freighter U.S.S. Alexander, caught sight
of the mountain after leaving Anping Harbor [in
present-day Tainan ] and recorded the event in the
ship's log. Subsequently, Westerners referred to Yu
Shan as "Mt. Morrison."



新高山--殖民者權力與知識延伸的指標

日本於1895年領台後,對於海島台灣的崇山
峻嶺與山區原住民即有高度關注,高度超過
日本本土最高峰富士山的台灣玉山,更為其
關注的焦點,因此不斷有人前往攀登探查,
並有更改山名、建立神社、設置國家公園等
措施,玉山以「新高山」之名被賦予新的認
同象徵。




"Nitakayama" - symbol of colonial power and new conquests
in the realm of knowledge

After Japan took over Taiwan in 1895, it gave much
attention to the islands soaring mountain chains and the
Aborigines living in them. Yu Shan, whose height exceeds
that of Mt. Fuji, Japan's highest mountain, became a
particular focus of attention. Consequently, there came
a constant stream of people who climbed and investigated
it, it underwent a name change, a Shinto Shrine was
erected upon it, and it was eventually declared a
national park. The Japanese bestowed upon Yu Shan the
name "Nitakayama," or "New Highest Mountain,"
symbolizing its new sovereign identity.



1896年,陸軍步兵中尉長野義虎在9月16日
入山,沿清代古道東行,9月28日登上玉山
,這可能是日人首登玉山的記錄。



In the year 1896, army infantry Lieutenant Major Nakano
Yoshitora entered the mountains on September 16 and,
heading east along an old Ch'ing Dynasty trail, finally
reached the top of Yu Shan on September 28, perhaps the
first time for Japanese people.



1896年9月,日人測量玉山高度為3950公尺
,比日本富士山(3776公尺)還高,1897年
6月28日,明治天皇諭令,將玉山改名為「
新高山」。

人類學家鳥居龍藏與學術探險家森丑之助在
1900年4月11日登上玉山,在山頂豎立木標
書寫:「我們日本的人類學研究,已延長到
台灣的新高山頂,我們期盼將來的研究領域
提升到更高的層次」。森丑日後並進行了五
次以上的攀登玉山勘查,可能是日本人中攀
登玉山次數最多者。


In September of 1896, the Japanese measured Yu Shan's
altitude as 3950 meters, higher than Mr. Fuji (3776
meters). On June 28, 1897, the Meiji Emperor handed
down an edict, declaring the Yu Shan's name be changed
to "Nitakayama." On April 11, 1900 anthropologist Tori
Ryuzo and scholar cum explorer Mori Ushinosuke mounted
Yu Shan, erecting on its peak a wooden plaque with the
inscription, "Our Japanese anthropological researches
have now extended to the summit of Taiwan's Nitakayama.
We look forward to lifting the scope of research to ever
greater heights." Later, Mori climbed Yu Shan an
additional five or more times to conduct studies,
perhaps giving him the record as the Japanese who has
climbed Yu Shan the most times.

在日本人將玉山改名並進行攀登勘查過程中
,具有高度領有與編納意義的為總督石塚英
藏攀登新高山之舉。石塚英藏是日本治台第
13任總督(任期1929.7.30~1931.1.16),
他在1930年8月4日登上新高山主峰。日本治
台期間共有19任總督,其中只有石塚一人登
臨新高山,總督是台灣最高權力者,其權力
來自日本國內中央政府的授權,總督登上全
台最高峰,象徵日本帝國對台灣的領有與納
編,更有相當程度的「征服」意義。




Amidst the process of name change and investigative
climbing expeditions, the event with the greatest
signification with regard to establishment of sovereignty
and order was Viceroy Isitsuka Shuzo's climbing of
Nitakayama. The 13th viceroy to Taiwan (whose term of
office was from July 30, 1929 to January 16, 1931),
Isitsuka mounted Yu Shan's peak on August 4, 1930.
During the Japanese colonial era, there were in all 19
viceroys, Isitsuka being the only one to climb Nitakayma.
Inasmuch as the viceroy is the highest power holder in
Taiwan, whose power is bestowed by the Japanese central
government, the viceroy's mounting the summit of Yu Shan
was symbolic of Japan's taking over and imposition of
order upon Taiwan, with a strong flavor of having
"conquered" the island.





1930年代,日本政府擬在玉山設立國立公園
。1933年「台灣國立公園協會」成立,1937
年台灣總督府選定「新高、阿里山」、「次
高、太魯閣」、「大屯」三處國家公園預定
地,不過因日本發動太平洋戰爭,轉而南進
與軍事擴張,此項建設遂無力推動,但由日
人的調查與計劃,已可看出日本對帝國最高
峰及其周邊地區永續經營的理念與企圖。




In the 1930s, the Japanese government planned the
establishment of a national park in the Yu Shan area.
In 1933, a "Taiwan National Parks Association" was
established, and in 1937 the Viceroy's Office selected
three mountain regions -- "Nitaka/Ali Shan," "....../Taroko
[Gorge]" ["Tzugau," or "Second-Highest," and "Tatun"
[on the northern rim of Taipei's Peitou District] -- as
designated national parks. Due, however, to Japan's
launching of war in the Pacific and subsequent southward
extension of military action, this program eventually
came to naught. Nevertheless, we can see in the Japanese
surveys and plans for national parks Japan's
conceptualization and intention of implementing a
scheme of sustainable environmental management for
this highest peak in its empire and its environs.





西望故國山河的最高點--高度政治色彩的
國府來台初期

1949年中華民國政府遷台,新高山回歸玉山
之名,但由於玉山在戒嚴體制下的山地管制
,因此再度成為高峻遙遠的高山意象。1966
年國府在玉山山頂建於右任銅像之事,則賦
予玉山高度的政治色彩,藉豎立銅像之舉,
建構玉山作為西望故國山河的最高點,鼓動
民眾心懷「祖國山河」,深化反攻復國的宣
傳。



Highest vantage point for westward looking toward the
mother country

After the Republic of China government evacuated the
mainland to Taiwan in 1949, Nitakayama reverted to its
earlier name "Yu Shan" and, under martial law
dispensation, which restricted access to Yu Shan and
other deep-mountain areas, Yu Shan once more took on
the mystique of distant, unreachable imposing peak. In
1966, the ROC government erected a bronze statue of Yu
Yiu-jen [revered mainland calligrapher who fled to
Taiwan along with the ROC government, where he served
as the head of the Control Yuan] on the summit of Yu
Shan, thus conferring upon the mountain a high-profile
political symbolism: Erection of the statue in effect
established Yu Shan as the highest vantage point for
looking toward the motherland, encouraging the people
of Taiwan to cherish in their hearts thoughts of "the
ancestral mountains and rivers" of China so as to
strengthen propaganda aimed at winning back the
mainland.




台灣人自我認同為歸屬玉山的子民

1970年代國府的外交挫敗,轉而求諸島內土
地人民之支撐以化解外部政權合法性危機,
80年代以後台灣官方與民間的本土化走向,
國家級古蹟的指定與國家公園的設立為表徵
之一,1985年4月10日玉山國家公園管理處
正式成立,為台灣第一個國家公園。

80年代後期以來,以台灣海洋島嶼土地山嶽
作為具體國土領域象徵的現象日益明顯,
1995年,台灣區運聖火首度在玉山峰頂點燃
。玉山山頂上具政治圖騰象徵的銅像在1996
年5月初被發現已完全拆除推落山谷,玉山
得以還原原貌,玉管處代之以刻上「玉山主
峰」及「標高3952公尺」的天然巨石為基石
。1997年起,《新觀念》雜誌社展開的「玉
山運動」,結合商業、媒體、國家儀典,登
山健身、藝文創作等內涵,對玉山進行不同
意義的詮釋與實踐。1999年正式成立的「台
灣國家山嶽協會」也致力營造讓人民認同玉
山是「台灣國家第一高峰」的觀念。2000年
5月20日新任總統就職大典中,演奏國際名
作曲家蕭泰然的「玉山頌交響詩」樂曲,並
配合詩人李敏勇的詩歌朗誦,郵政總局發行
的新總統就職紀念郵票上,也以玉山作為背
景,玉山隱然成為國家新領袖的堅實「靠山
」,台灣人已自我認同為歸屬玉山的子民。



Taiwan National Identity: Children of Yu Shan

In the wake of diplomatic setbacks during the 1970s
[most momentously, the United States' recognition of
the People's Republic of China as the sole legal
government of "one China" inclusive of Taiwan], the
ROC government sought during the 1980's to win popular
support through a process of "nativization" of the
governmental apparatus and social organizations, in an
effort to defuse the crisis of legitimacy of a government
imposed upon Taiwan by outsiders from the mainland.
Designation of national historic monuments and
establishment of national parks in Taiwan constituted
one aspect of that localization trend. On April 10,
1985, the Yu Shan National Park Authority was formally
established, marking the advent of Taiwan's first
national park.

The latter half of the 1980's witnessed an ever-growing
phenomenon of treating the mountain regions of the
ocean-island land of Taiwan as the concrete symbol of
its status as a nation unto itself:

* In 1995, the Taiwan Regional Olympic Games Sacred
Flame was lit on the summit of Yu Shan.

* In early May of 1996, it was discovered that the
statue of Yu Yiu-jen had been removed and pushed into
the valley below; and Yu Shan peak took on a new face
when, in place of the statue, the Yu Shan National Park
Authority had the inscription "Main peak of Yu Shan
mountain group, elevation 3952 meters" engraved in the
peak's natural-stone edifice.

* Beginning in 1997, New Concept Magazine set in motion
a new expression of Yu Shan's symbolic significance by
launching a "Yu Shan Movement" involving health-promoting
mountain hiking and artistic works and events, supported
by businesses and reported by the media, in conjunction
with a government-sponsored ceremony.

* The National Alpine Association of Taiwan, formally
established in 1999, exerted its energies to enhance a
Taiwan-national-identity awareness of Yu Shan as the
"highest peak in the nation of Taiwan."

* As part of the May 20, 2000 Presidential Inauguration
Ceremony, the musical work of Hsiao Tai-jan entitled "Yu
Shan Hymn Symphony" was performed together with
recitation of an ode [to Yu Shan] by poet Li Min-yung.

* The Postal Bureau issued a Presidential Inauguration
commemorative stamp showing the new president against
the background of Yu Shan, subtly symbolizing Yu Shan as
the firm "rock of support" of the nation's leader as well
as of the Taiwan people's recognition of their identities
as Yu Shan's children.




西望故國山河的最高點--高度政治色彩的
國府來台初期

1949年中華民國政府遷台,新高山回歸玉山
之名,但由於玉山在戒嚴體制下的山地管制
,因此再度成為高峻遙遠的高山意象。1966
年國府在玉山山頂建於右任銅像之事,則賦
予玉山高度的政治色彩,藉豎立銅像之舉,
建構玉山作為西望故國山河的最高點,鼓動
民眾心懷「祖國山河」,深化反攻復國的宣
傳。



Highest vantage point for westward looking toward the
mother country

After the Republic of China government evacuated the
mainland to Taiwan in 1949, Nitakayama reverted to its
earlier name "Yu Shan" and, under martial law dispensation,
which restricted access to Yu Shan and other deep-mountain
areas, Yu Shan once more took on the mystique of distant,
unreachable imposing peak. In 1966, the ROC government
erected a bronze statue of Yu Yiu-jen [revered mainland
calligrapher who fled to Taiwan along with the ROC
government, where he served as the head of the Control
Yuan] on the summit of Yu Shan, thus conferring upon the
mountain a high-profile political symbolism: Erection of
the statue in effect established Yu Shan as the highest
vantage point for looking toward the motherland,
encouraging the people of Taiwan to cherish in their
hearts thoughts of "the ancestral mountains and rivers"
of China so as to strengthen propaganda aimed at winning
back the mainland.




玉山作為台灣人認同意象的變遷過程,在早
期漢人眼中為遙遠神奇之高峰,原住民視為
始祖傳說之地;至日人治台,將玉山改名為
新高山,代表帝國的擴張成就,不斷進行攀
登調查研究,象徵「知識」的征服;國府領
台後,山地管制使人遠隔玉山,山頂豎立政
治人物銅像,使玉山高度政治符號化。這種
由人(國家)領有自然、支配土地,可說是
「自然的國家化」的現象,而當台灣逐漸民
主化、本土化、台灣化,台灣人認同自然大
地,歸屬島國山海,回到土地包容人民,相
當於「國家自然化」,而台灣最高峰的玉山
,正高度發揮了作為認同地景標的的作用。



Yu Shan has served as an evolving symbol of the Taiwan
people's identity: In the early Han immigrants' eyes it
was a faraway, fantastic peak; for some Aborigines, it
was a legendary site in ancestral history; during the
Japanese rule, its change of name to Nitakayama
represented the success of Japanese imperial expansion,
and their repeated mountain-climbing surveys and
researches symbolized victory in the quest for knowledge;
after the ROC government took over Taiwan, travel
restrictions in mountain areas distanced the people
from Yu Shan, and erection of a politician's statue on
the mountain's peak gave Yu Shan a highly politicized
significance. Such occupation of nature and control of
the land may be described as the "nationalization of
Nature," whereas over the course of Taiwan's
democratization, localization, and "Taiwanization,"
Taiwan's people have begun to recognize their own
identities as part of Nature, belonging to the mountains
and seas of an island nation, returning to an earlier
perception of a land tolerating its people -- something
like a "naturalization of the nation" -- and Taiwan's
paramount peak, Yu Shan, continues to this day to serve
a prominent role as "topographic emblem" of the Taiwan
people's self-awareness.



Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by James Decker
李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯
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