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「影之強敵」 -- 日本文化遺緒
"Shadow foe" --- the legacy of Japanese culture in Taiwan

Tsai Mien-tang
(Professor, Tamkang University Department of History)

2001-11-26


Such traditional Japanese foods as sushi, sashimi,
onigiri, etc. have become customary dietary items in
the daily lives of Taiwan's people.

日本統治台灣期間,正值西方 、 日本 近代
化蓬勃發展時期,如同英國促使香港的蛻變
,日本亦為台灣帶來近代化的光與影,並留
下許多日本文化遺緒。戰後蔣介石政府曾欲
禁絕日本文化「遺毒」,但此「遺毒」卻如
日語中所謂的「影之強敵」(KAGE NO
KYOUTEKI)——存在但看不見的強敵——
般,不僅存在,且似已成為台灣文化中的一
部分。本週台灣歷史之窗特別邀請淡江大學
歷史系教授蔡錦堂執筆,娓娓細數從建築到
音樂、從飲食乃至於流行文化--無所不在
的日本文物與台灣文化生活的緊密關係。


The Japanese colonial era in Taiwan (1895-1945)
coincided with an effervescent surge of modernization
in the West and Japan. Just as he British brought
about a dramatic metamorphosis in Hong Kong, the
Japanese exerted a strong modernizing impact upon
Taiwan with bright and dark sides, in addition to
which it has left a strong Japanese cultural imprint
on its society. In the post-war years, with the return
of Taiwan to Chinese rule, the Chiang Kai-shek regime
strove to uproot the "residual poison" of Japanese
culture from Taiwan, but this "residual poison" has
proven to be, as the Japanese might put it, a kage
no kyouteki, or "shadow foe" --something not obviously
perceptible yet present nonetheless. Indeed, that
"poison" not merely continues to exist, but has
become a part of Taiwan culture. In this week's
Window on Taiwan, Professor Tsai Ching-tang of the
Tamkang University History Department gives us a
fascinating, variegated account -- ranging from
architecture to music, diet to pop culture -- of
the intimate relationship between ubiquitous "things
Japanese" and Taiwan's cultural life.


現在台灣的社會中,或許在尋常生活中就可
以見到下列的現象。如到朋友家,會跟朋友
的父母打招呼說「歐吉桑」你好,「歐巴桑
」你好;中午吃的食物是「壽司」、「御飯
團」或「關東煮」;假日逛街是到「三越」
、「SOGO」或「高島屋」;戴的手錶是「
SEIKO」、照相機是「NIKON」、開的車子
是「TOYOTA」、「NISSAN」;而看的漫畫
、電視劇是「家有賤狗」、「名偵探柯南」
、「東京愛情故事」等等。台灣社會中充斥
著「日本事物」、「日本文化」,這個現象
到底是「太陽餘暉」?還是「第二次日據(
劇)時期」?




In today's Taiwan society, we may find the following
phenomena in normal, everyday life: When you visit a
friend's home, you might greet the friend's father
and mother with the words "Ojisan, how are your?
Obasan, how are you? (polite term for addressing
relatively elderly men and women )"; at lunchtime
you eat sushi, onigiri, or oden. On days off, you
might go shopping at Mitsukoshi, Sogo or Takashiyama
department stores; you may be wearing a Seiko watch
or carrying a Nikon camera; the car you drive might
be a Toyota or Nissan; and the TV programs you watch
might include such cartoons and dramatic series as
"Our Family Has a Bad Dog," "Supersleuth Kanan " or
"Tokyo Love Story." Taiwan society is replete with
such "things Japanese" and vestiges of Japanese
culture. Are these phenomena indicative of an
"afterglow" of an already-set Japanese sun, or
of a second "Japanese occupation?"


公私建築裡紀錄過往的帝國殖民夢

造成如此現象的原因有許多,但不能否認地
與日本對台統治五十年的歷史因素有所關連
。這些日本統治時期的文化遺緒,如果先從
看得見的「硬體」方面的建築物觀之,現在
的總統府是以前的總督府,行政院是以前的
台北市役所(市政府),立法院為台北第三
高女校舍,監察院是當時的台北州廳,台北
賓館是日治時期的台灣總督官邸,台北中山
堂是原來的公會堂,而總統府兩旁的司法大
廈與台灣銀行則是日治時期的高等法院與台
灣銀行。換句話說,目前台灣政府行政中樞
所使用的建築物,大部分是沿用日治時期的
遺留物。官廳如此,其他如台北二二八紀念
公園、國立台灣博物館、台大醫院舊館,以
及各地殘存的公私日式建築物亦如是。



Public and private buildings: reminders of the
imperial colonialist dream

Although reasons for this phenomenon are several
in number, it is undeniable that it is related in
large part to Japan's 50-year rule over Taiwan.
If we first examine the cultural legacy of the
Japanese colonial era from the point of view of
the "hardware" of buildings, we find that the
present-day Presidential Office Building was the
former Viceroy's Office; the Executive Yuan was
the former Taipei City Government; the Legislative
Yuan was once the Third High School Girl's
Dormitory; the Examination Yuan was the Taipei
Syu Administrative Office ["Syu" being one of 3
major adminstrative regions of Taiwan]; the Taipei
Guest House [where governmental conferences are
held and officials visiting Taipei are temporarily
housed] in the period of Japanese rule was the
official residence of the Viceroy; Chung Shan Hall
was originally the Public Assembly Hall; and the
Judicial Office Building and Bank of Taiwan on
opposite sides of the Presidential Office Building
were, respectively, the Japanese-era High Court and
Bank of Taiwan. In other words, the buildings
currently being used in the heart of the Taiwan
Government administrative district are for the most
part buildings in continuous use from the
Japanese-era. While this is the case with official
office buildings, it is likewise the true of other
facilities such as Taipei's February 28 Memorial
Peace Park, the National Taiwan Museum, the older
section of the National Taiwan University Hospital
and other leftover Japanese-style buildings in
public and private use all over Taiwan.



飲食與娛樂生活中的日本文化遺緒

在看不見的「軟體」文化層面,我們亦可觀
察到許多日治時期的日本文化遺緒,以飲食
而言,壽司、生魚片、御飯團等均已成為台
灣人日常生活習慣的食物,而在點吃壽司或
生魚片時,許多人是直接使用日語「SUSHI
」、『SASHIMI』。基本上SUSHI、SASHIMI
等已經變成台灣餐廳或市場中,相當熟悉且
「土著化」的名詞。另外,例如常被誤認為
台灣傳統食物之一的早餐稀飯佐菜──漬黃
蘿蔔,其實亦是自日本傳來的醃製菜蔬
TAKUAN。而做料理用的調味品「味素」之
名,則是取自日本所發明的化學調味料公司
「味之素AJINOMOTO」品牌名稱。至於「
便當BENTOH」之名與音,更是無可否認已
完全深入台灣民間社會,成為台灣現實生活
文化中的一部分。



Traces of Japanese culture in dietary habits and
entertainment

Numerous vestiges of Japanese culture from the
Japanese colonial era also survive in the form of
the less visible "software" of culture. Take food,
for instance. Such traditional Japanese foods as
sushi (sliced sections of rice rolled together
with dried seaweed and other ingredients), sashimi
(raw fish slices), onigiri (a type of rice cake
wrapped in a hori, or dried seaweed, found in all
convenience stores ) , etc. have become customary
dietary items in the daily lives of Taiwan's people.
Many people directly use the Japanese pronunciation
for these food names rather than Chinese equivalents,
such Japanese terms as sushi and sashimi having long
been commonplace in restaurants and marketplaces,
even to the extent of now having become "nativized"
nouns. In addition, a type of rice porridge side
dish referred to in Chinese as "pickled yellow
turnip" and commonly mistaken for a traditional
Taiwanese breakfast food, is in fact takuan
("pickled vegetable") transmitted from Japan.
And the condiment which in Chinese goes by the
two-character name 味素 ("flavor essence") got
that name from the famous brand name Ajinomoto
(味之素 , with the additional adjectival particle
之) of the Japanese company that first invented
this chemically compounded condiment (monosodium
glutamate, or MSG). And then there is also the
term 便當 (a sort of meal box) which, along with
its Japanese pronunciation, bentoh, has even more
undeniably entered into common Taiwan society and
become a part of practical daily life culture.



日本統治時期,台灣庶民社會的餘暇生活、
娛樂方面也產生了很大的變化。受到世界流
行的影響,一些新式休閒娛樂漸漸出現,例
如撞球、棒球。特別是棒球,日本稱之為「
野球」,在日治時期已培養出許多棒球人才
,戰後這些人才在台灣1970年代棒球熱時,
也貢獻了不少心力;另外,影響所及的結果
是台灣的棒球語言,有很多都是日語,例如
投手叫PICCHAH,捕手叫KYACCHAH,全
壘打是HOMURAN,一壘叫FASUTOH,二壘
叫SEKANDOH,三壘是SAHDOH,這些均源
自於西文的PITCHER、CATCHER、HOMERUN
等的日語化,但亦被台灣棒球界「接收」下
來。


During the period of Japanese rule, the leisure-time
and entertainment aspects of common Taiwanese society
likewise underwent major changes. Under the influence
of a world-wide wave of popularization, various novel
leisure-time entertainments gradually appeared in
Taiwan through Japanese introduction, as for example
billiards and baseball. Especially in the sport of
baseball -- referred to by the Japanese as yakyu
(野球 - "field ball"), many talented players were
cultivated during the Japanese era, who, in the
post-war era, made considerable contributions
giving rise to the baseball fever which overwhelmed
Taiwan during the 1970s. Moreover, as the result of
Japanese influence, baseball jargon used in Taiwan
(mainly by the older generation) includes such
Japanese terms as picchah (pitcher), kyacchah
(catcher), homuran (homerun), fasutoh (first base),
sekandoh (second base), and sahdoh (third base).
Though variations on the original English terms,
it was these Japanified monikers which first took
root in the world of Taiwan baseball.


流行樂界裡的東洋風

以流行歌曲來說,在錄音帶、CD等尚未出現
之前,聽音樂都使用唱片、收音機,而「唱
片」用閩南語發音一般稱為「曲盤」,收音
機則叫做「RAJIO」,這也是從日語
KYOKUBAN(漢字即寫成曲盤)及英語
RADIO的日語發音形成的。



Japanese flavor of pop music in Taiwan

In the realm of pop music, in the days before the
advent of tape cassettes and CDs, people were
obliged to use vinyl records and radios to listen
to music. In Taiwan, records were called Kiok-poan,
the Taiwanese pronunciation of the two-character
term 曲盤 ("tune platter") introduced by the
Japanese, who themselves who is pronounced it
kyokuban. The Taiwan word for "radio" is the
Japanified pronouciation rajio.


Japanese-introduced baseball, or yakyu, has become
an intimate part of popular Taiwan leisure.

台灣的流行歌曲在1920年代至1930年代開始
出現,早期這些流行歌曲帶有濃厚的「東洋
風」,譬如我們所熟悉的戰前的「望春風」
、「雨夜花」、「月夜愁」、「河邊春夢」
等,以及戰後的「望你早歸」、「秋風夜雨
」、「港都夜雨」等等,其實均受到當時日
本流行歌謠創作模式的影響,帶有濃厚的日
本味道,只差的是歌詞以閩南語唱出而已。
當時日本歌謠界有二大作曲天王──中山晉
平與古賀政男,二人在有生之年均譜了三千
首以上的曲,而中山晉平於1928年以「無四
、七音之五音短音階」樹立日本近代歌謠風
,帶有幾分頹廢、哀調。而1930年古賀政男
使用吉他等樂器作曲,加上當時著名作詞者
西條八十用所謂的「悲劇名詞」作詞,如:
風、雨、星、霧、月、秋、網、夢、河、夜
、戀、愛、花、愁、船、淚、港、影、心、
酒、醉、燈、夕陽、車站、暮色等等,反映
出當代民眾生活與心情傾向而大受歡迎。審
視台灣之「雨夜花」、「秋風夜雨」等帶有
憂愁、頹廢的哀調與歌詞,其實亦受到此類
東洋風格的影響。



Taiwanese pop music developed during the 1920s
and 1930s, from the very beginning taking on a
strong Japanese character. For instance, such
well known pre-war Taiwanese songs as "Looking
Forward to the Spring Wind," "Rainy Night Flower,"
"Moon-lit Night Sadness," or "Riverside Spring
Dream," as well as such post-war songs as "Looking
Forward to Your Early Return," "Autumn Wind, Night
Rain," "Harbor Town Night Rain" and many others
were in fact all influenced by the model set by
Japanese pop songs of the time, carrying a thick
Japanese aroma, differing only in that the lyrics
were in Hoklo (Taiwanese) rather than Japanese.
During those pre-war decades, there were two pop
music kings in Japan --Nakayama Shinpei and Koga
Masao, each of whom in his lifetime composed more
than 3000 tunes. In 1928 Nakayama set the mood for
subsequent contemporary Japanese songs with his
pentatonic abbreviated scale omitting the 4th and
7th tones, producing a dejected, mournful sound.
In 1930, Koga Masao began composing tunes employing
the guitar and a variety of other new instruments
in combination with lyrics by the then-famous song
writer Saijyo Yaso , who typically used a vocabulary
of "tragedy-tinged nouns" including such oft-
appearing words as wind, rain, stars, mist, moon,
autumn, net, dream, river, night, infatuation,
love, flowers, remorse, boat, tears, harbor,
shadows, heart, wine, drunk, lamp, setting sun,
train station, dusk, etc. -- resonating with the
lives and mood tendencies of the common people of
the time, and being greatly appreciated by them.
Inspection of such Taiwanese songs, with their
dreary, despondent melodies and lyrics, proves
them to have been heavily influence by this Japanese
tonality.


日本式名字與「台灣化」的日本語文

1940年台灣開始「改姓名」運動,除了部分
人改日本姓、日本名外(如李登輝改為巖裡
政男、林懷民之父林金生改為牧野雄風、戴
炎輝為田井輝雄),也造成日後許多台灣人
的名字中帶有「日本式名字」,例如:義雄
、文雄、智雄、秀雄、英雄、昭彥、文男、
信良、靜枝等。這些名字由於也是以漢字標
出,不像一郎、太郎、花子等日式名字容易
被察覺,但其實都是帶有日式風味的名字,
都受到當時日本文化的影響。一般而言,這
些名字較多出現在目前四十至六十歲之間的
台灣人身上。



Taiwanization of Japanese words

In 1940 began a name-change movement, [promoted by
the Japanese colonial government in order to garner
support for its World War II effort]. While a number
of Taiwanese changed both their surnames and given
names to Japanese names -- as, for example, former
President Lee Teng-hui, who changed his name to
Iwasato Masao ; the father of Li Min-huai [founder
and director of the renowned Cloud Gate Dance Troop
became Makino Okaze ; or Tai Yen-huei, who took the
name Tai Teruo -- many more Taiwanese were bestowed
with Japanese-style given names at birth, such as
義雄 , 文雄 , 智雄 , 秀雄 , 英雄 , 昭彥 , 文男 ,
信良 , or 靜枝 . These and other Japanese-style
given names used by the Taiwanese may easily be
mistaken for Chinese given names since, besides the
fact that both the Japanese and Taiwanese use
Chinese characters for their names, the names chosen
by the Taiwanese were not so obviously Japanese as,
for example, the very common Japanese given names
Ichiro , Taro or Hanako . The fact remains, however,
that they preserve a Japanese flavor, bearing witness
to the imprint left by Japanese culture on life in
Taiwan. Generally, such Japanese-sounding names are
these days most commonly found among Taiwanese in
the 40 - 60 year-old age group.



受到日治時期日本文化影響的事例,最常見
到的其實是出現在台灣社會中的「日本語文
」,當然這些日本語文已不見得是純粹標準
的日本語文,而是經過「土著化」、「台灣
化」的日本語文,前述之「歐巴桑」、「歐
吉桑」、「便當」、「野球」等等均屬之。
這些語詞其實在台灣日常生活中俯拾即是,
例如日語中的「新聞」是指報紙,台語稱看
報紙為「看新聞」,其實就是日文漢字「新
聞」的台語直譯。這種情形在台語文中相當
的多,例如「上等」、「郵便」、「注文」
、「料理」、「案內」、「萬年筆」、「目
藥」、「愛嬌」、「自轉車」、「自動車」
、「水道」、「出勤」、「元氣」、「出張
」、「會社」、「人氣」、「落第」、「遠
足」、「配達」、「見本」、「在庫品」、
「勉強」、「看板」、「小包」、「失敬」
、「酸素」、「中古」、「運轉」、「住所
」、「麥酒」等等。另外如日語的情緒為「
氣持KIMOCHI」,台語則將尾音「CHI」省略
,直謂「KIMO」。「KIMO」早已成為大家常
用的語詞之一。又如日語的「一番ICHIBAN
」,也是台灣社會中的慣用語,現在更有人
直接以「一級棒」去直譯。

Among the examples of Japanese cultural influence
still surviving from the era of Japanese rule, the
most commonly occurring are many Japanese-language
expressions which have been incorporated into the
Hoklo or "Taiwanese" language. Of course that is not
to say that all of the Japanese expressions
incorporated into Taiwanese are standard Japanese
either in orthography or pronunciation. The
aforementioned words obasan and ojisan, for example,
are rendered in Taiwanese written language as
transliterations with orthographic? entirely
different from their Japanese counterparts; while
the above-mentioned words bentoh and yakyu, while
preserving the original Chinese-character orthography,
are commonly given Taiwanese pronunciations. In fact,
the Taiwanese language used in everyday life is
replete with such borrowed expressions. For instance,
the Japanese term for "newspaper" is 新聞 [which in
Chinese dialects simply means "news"], and this
Japanese term has been directly borrowed for use in
Hoklo, though with a Hoklo pronunciation of the
characters [while, by contrast, in most Chinese
dialects, "newspaper" is rendered as 報紙 , or
"report paper"]. We may cite many other examples
of expressions in Hoklo which are directly borrowed
Japanese terms supplanting those used in most
Chinese dialects, including, for example, the
words for: 上等 first-class, 郵便 mail, 注文
registration, 料理 cuisine, 案內 guide, 萬年筆
fountain pen, 目藥 eye medicine, 愛嬌 charming,
自轉車bicycle, 自動車 automobile, 水道 tap water,
出勤 on duty, 元氣 vitality, 出張 go on a business
trip, 會社 company, 人氣 popularity, 落第 fall a
test, 遠足 excursion 配達 express 見本 sample,
在庫品 inventory, 勉強 industrious, 看板 billboard,
小包 parcel, 失敬 I'm sorry, 中古 used, 運轉 drive,
住所 residence, 麥酒 beer. Sometimes, Japanese
pronunciation is also preserved but with some
alteration, as with the Japanese word kimochi,
meaning "emotion," whose final syllable is dropped
in Taiwanese to become the widely used word kimo.
In other instances, the correct pronunciation is
preserved as with the oft-used term ichiban (一番),
meaning "number one!" , which some people are given
to transliterating using the characters 一級棒 ,
meaning "first-grade wonderful!"

日治時期的日本文化遺緒已經為台灣社會所
吸收而成為台灣社會文化的一部分,如果硬
是以「親日」「仇日」的意識型態去簡單化
約它,而企求排斥它,或許將會發現此「影
之強敵」是難以根除的。


Japanese cultural influences dating from the colonial
era have been absorbed and become deeply engrained in
the culture of Taiwan society for a long time now. If
we look upon this circumstance from the simplistic
point of view of a contest between Japanofiles and
those who resent the Japanese for their past wrongs,
and if the latter side is bent upon rejecting
Japanese influences, they may well have to become
resigned to the fact that this "shadow foe" is
impossible to uproot.



Edited by Tina Lee/ translated by James Decker
李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯
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