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蔣政權流亡入台
Exile of the Chiang K'ai-shek regime to Taiwan

李筱峰/Li Hsiao-feng
(世新大學教授)
(Professor, Shih Hsin University)

2001-12-10


Military parade in commemoration of the 2nd
anniversary of Chiang K'ai-shek's "Second Coming"
[resumption of office as president] (Courtesy of
Hung Tsung-yi)

1949 年 12月 7日中國國民黨主政的中華民國
政府棄守中國大陸,撤退到台灣,這是台灣
史上的一件大事。隨國民黨政權流亡進入台
灣的大批軍民,在經濟、政治、社會等各方
面對台灣造成什麼樣的影響?而其中有哪些
影響仍在持續發酵中?本週台灣歷史之窗特
別邀請世新大學李筱峰教授執筆,分析半個
世紀以來,蔣流亡政權與新移民在台灣史中
所扮演的角色及其影響。

On December 7, 1949, the Kuomintang-led
government of the Republic of China gave up defense
of its sovereignty over the Chinese mainland and
retreated into exile in Taiwan -- a momentous event in
the history of Taiwan. What economic, political and
social influences did the large number of troops
accompanying the KMT regime have on Taiwan? And
which among those influences continue to ferment in
Taiwan to this day? For this week's installment of
Window on Taiwan, the Taiwan News has invited
Professor Li Hsiao-feng of Shih Hsin University to
provide an analysis of the roles played by, and the
influences of, the exiled Chiang K'ai-shek regime
and new immigrants to Taiwan.

二次大戰結束後約半年,國民黨與共產黨之
間的軍事衝突又起。1948年末,戰局轉趨對
共軍有利。腐敗的蔣介石政權在經濟崩潰、
民心漸失的環境中,節節敗退。1949 年1 月
21 日, 總統蔣介石被逼引退下台 (但仍暗中
操縱政局 ) , 由副總統李宗仁代理。但大勢
已去,難以挽回。共軍渡過長江後,佔領南
京,國民黨政府由南京遷往廣州 (2月1日) ,
再由廣州遷往重慶 (9月7日) 。毛澤東於10月
1 日在北京主持中華人民共和國的開國大典
。 12月7 日國民黨政權退入台灣。蔣介石則
早在 6月24日到台北,選定陽明山設立「總
裁辦公室」 (8月1日成立)。他並於翌年3月1
日復職,繼續出任總統。

About half a year after the conclusion of World War II
, military hostilities between the Kuomintang and the
Chinese Communist Party resumed, and during 1948,
the advantage began tilting in favor of the CCP military.
Under the influences of economic collapse and loss in
public confidence, the corrupt Chiang K'ai-shek regime
suffered defeat upon defeat. On January 21, 1949,
President Chiang was forced to retire from office,
though still manipulating the government from behind
the scenes, while Vice President Li Tsung-jen took
over as acting president. The chance for recovering the
advantage had already passed, however, and there was
no possibility of saving the day. When the communist
troops crossed the Yangzi River and occupied Nanjing,
the KMT government moved southward to Guangzhou
(February 1) and subsequently to Chongqing (September
7). On October 1, Mao Tse-tung presided over the
ceremony for establishment of the People's Republic
of China in Beijing, and on December 7, the KMT
regime retreated to Taiwan. Earlier, on June 24,
Chiang K'ai-shek had arrived in Taipei and selected
Yangmingshan as the site of the "Office of the
Generalissimo," which was established on August 1.
On March 1, 1949, he resumed the post of president.

人口大增,經濟受累

國民黨政權在潰逃之前,其統治下的大陸經
濟體系正迅速走向崩潰,台灣受其牽累,加
劇台灣經濟的混亂。而隨著國民黨政權的潰
敗,大批軍民陸續逃入台灣,一時人口驟增
,帶給台灣社會更大的壓力。終戰之初,台
灣人口僅600多萬人,但從 1946 年到 1952 年
的7年間,台灣共增加了約200萬人,其中僅
1949年到1950年的大逃亡就進入了軍民約100
萬人。這些突然湧入的人口,又不是第一線
生產線上的人口,因此台灣一時承受極大的
經濟壓力。人口開始大增的 1948年和1949年
,也是台灣通貨膨脹最嚴重的時期。1949年
6 月台灣的物價指數,已是終戰之初的 7000
多倍。令人難以忘懷的「四萬元換一元」的
新台幣發行,也在此時開始



Economic disruption from massive influx of
immigrants

Prior to the rout of the KMT government, the mainland
economy had rapidly deteriorated to the point of collapse
under its rule, with serious repercussions in Taiwan,
aggravating its [already existing post-war] economic
disarray. And following the KMT government's defeat
on the mainland, the arrivals of wave upon wave of
government soldiers in Taiwan and the consequent
sudden jump in Taiwan's population exerted an even
greater pressure upon Taiwan society. As of the end of
WW II, Taiwan's population was only about 6 million,
whereas between the period 1946-1952 it increased by
an additional 2 million more or less, including about 1
million soldiers who fled the mainland between 1949
and 1950. The period of greatest population influx,
from 1948-1949, also coincided with the period of most
severe currency inflation. In June of 1949, the consumer
goods price index stood at 7000 times greater than at the
end of the WW II. Unforgettably, it was also in this year
that the 40,000: 1 rate of conversion to the New Taiwan
Dollar was instituted.

工作特權與居住環境的隔離

再者,在短期間移入台灣的大陸人儼然成
為一大族群,加以國民黨政府的各機關要
職仍以大陸人為主導,位居要津。再加上
眷區眷村等族群隔離政策的施行,使得自
二二八事件以後無法一時彌補的族群間的
矛盾,延續相當長的時間才逐漸淡化。



Job favoritism and residential segregation

Furthermore, the mainlander immigrants shortly
became an exalted social group in Taiwan,
holding all of the head positions in the various
agencies of the KMT government. And due to the
government's ethnic segregation policy of
establishing special housing complexes and
residential areas reserved for mainland soldiers
and government workers, following the February
28 Incident [in 1947, which marked the beginning
of the "White Terror" in which thousands of
Taiwan people, especially intellectuals, were
rounded up and executed], it was difficult to
immediately resolve ethnic animus, which only
gradually abated over a prolonged period of
time.


政治性的質變

除了人口的壓力、族群的問題之外,對台
灣產生結構性影響的,應該是政治性質的
改變。其實,隨著國民黨政權的敗逃台灣
,1912年所建立的中華民國已經結束了。
流亡來到台灣的蔣政權,雖然在台灣仍掛
著「中華民國」名號,但其內容卻迥然不
同。1912年開國時的中華民國,其領土範
圍並沒有包括台灣﹔但1949以後掛名叫做
「中華民國」的,其統治範圍卻幾乎只有
台灣,而沒有大陸。國號雖然相同,但其
範圍剛好顛倒過來。


Transformation of political reality

Besides population pressure and ethnic problems,
what probably exerted the greatest influence on
Taiwan's social structure was political change.
In fact, after the KMT regime fled in defeat to
Taiwan, the Republic of China established in
1912 came to an end. Although the exiled Chiang
K'ai-shek regime continued to nominally treat
Taiwan as "the Republic of China," the content
actually denoted by that name was utterly
different from the prior reality: The territory
of the Republic of China established in 1912
had not included Taiwan; but after 1949, the
effective sphere of sovereignty of the land
referred to as "the Republic of China" was
almost nothing more than Taiwan and did not
include the mainland. While their names were
the same, the before-and-after territories
signified by that name were almost totally
contrary in scope [save for a few little
islands in the Taiwan Strait].


在 1912年建立的中華民國,在 1949結束後
,其原先的掌政者 (蔣介石統治集團) 拿著
原先的「中華民國」名號,流亡到原本沒
有參加中華民國建國的台灣,繼續維持其
政權。原先代表範圍僅限於大陸 ( 不包括
台灣)的所謂 「 國旗 」(其實沒有經過民
主法定程序,純然由一黨制定的「青天白
日滿地紅旗」),在1949年之後卻只能拿
到原本不在其代表範圍之內的台灣來插掛
。所謂的「國歌」(其實是中國國民黨黨
歌),也是如此。至於,在中國大陸上醞
釀、設計的「中華民國憲法」,現在也只
能拿來原本沒有參加中華民國建國的台灣
來修修補補。雖然有人說,台灣在1945年
10月25日到1949年底之間,已經納入中華
民國範圍。其實此時期的台灣,因尚未正
式簽訂中日和約來確定台灣的領土歸屬,
所以還在地位未定的階段。

After the Republic of China established in 1912
came to an end in 1949, its erstwhile governors,
Chiang K'ai-shek's ruling group, brought the name
of that erstwhile country with them into exile in
a Taiwan which had not taken part in the
establishment of the ROC in order to keep
alive their claim to power. After 1949, the
so-called "national flag" (the "blue sky,
white sun, red earth" banner, which in fact
was never formally adopted as the ROC national
flag through democratic legal procedure but was
unilaterally imposed by a single party), which
had originally signified only mainland China
without Taiwan, could only be planted on a
Taiwan soil which had never been a part of the
territory it symbolized. The same goes for the
"national anthem," which was actually the KMT
Party Song. Consequently, Taiwan has been left
in the curious position of having to amend in
haphazard fashion a "Constitution of the
Republic of China" developed and designed in
and for a bygone mainland country in whose
establishment Taiwan took no part. Although
there are those who say that during the period
between October 25, 1945 until the end of 1949
Taiwan had already become a territory of the
Republic of China, the fact is that during that
period its status was as yet undetermined
inasmuch as the WW II Sino-Japanese Peace
Treaty which defined its territorial sovereignty
had not yet been formally signed.

Soldiers retreating to Taiwan after the Kuomintang
regime had been soundly defeated on the Chinese
mainland.

無怪乎,隔年 ( 1950 . 3 . 13 ) 蔣介石在陽明
山莊演講<復職的使命與目的>時坦白說:
「我們的中華民國到去年終就隨大陸淪陷
而已滅亡了,我們今天都已成了亡國之民
,...」


No wonder, then, that in the following year, in
his March 3, 1950 address delivered from his
Yangmingshan villa, entitled "Mission and Objective
of My Resumption of Office," Chiang K'ai-shek
himself candidly stated, "Our Republic of China
ceased to exist at the end of last year with the
fall of the mainland, and we today have all
become its orphaned people..."


台灣的國家型態,自1949年底以後,竟出
現這種世界罕見的型態。他的國旗、國歌
、憲法,都是由外面一個已經結束的國家
帶進來的。

Taiwan's national status following the end of
1949 thus became an anomalous one hardly ever
seen in the world. Its national flag, national
anthem and constitution were all transplants
from a country which had expired.

這樣的國家型態,正如學者Ronald Weitzer
所謂的「遷佔者政權」(Settler State)。根據
Ronald Weitzer 在其所著《遷佔者國家的轉
型》 ( Transforming Settler State, Communal
Conflict and Security in Northen Ireland and
Zimbabwe ) 一書中指出:「遷佔者國家」
是「由支配原始居民的新移民所建立的國
所建立起的政治系統,家」,「遷佔者對
於原來遷出的母國,或是實際上,或是法
理上,均已經獨立;這個系統的目的是為
了保有遷佔者的政治優勢地位。」自1949
年底以後,國民黨政權撤出其原鄉母土,
播遷入台,建立其統治地位,使台灣成為
「遷佔者國家」的形態。



This sort of national status is exactly the one
characterized by scholar Ronald Weitzer as a
"settler state." As the book " Settler State
Transformation: Communal Conflict and Security
in Northern Ireland and Zimbabwe," Weizer states
that a "settler state" is "a state established
by new immigrants who exercise control over its
original native inhabitants" .... "The political
system established by the settlers, whether in
practical effect or in legal theory, is in any
case independent of the mother country which
they abandoned. The aim of such a political
system is to preserve the settlers' priviledged
political status." From the end of 1949 onward,
having vacated its homeland and transplanted
itself in Taiwan, the KMT regime established
its position as ruler, thus conferring upon
Taiwan the status of "settler state."

這個「遷佔者國家」的國民黨政權在台灣
設計的國家架構,是以全中國為標準。儘
管國民黨政府早已退出中國母土,但在國
家認同上,卻仍以其母土作為認同的指標
。他們宣稱有朝一日會「中興復國」,因
此他們編寫中國古代封建時期的故事「田
單復國」「少康中興」,來「教育」台灣
人,要他們「毋忘在莒」。整套教育內容
,及價值體系,是以大中國為座標來思考
,完全沒有台灣的主體性,灌輸人民對其
中國山河的感情,以及對領袖的效忠,而
不是對台灣歷史的瞭解,當然也沒有現代
國家意識的培養。雖然帶入一部規定有自
由、民權內容的憲法,可是卻以「動員戡
亂」的名目,以及戒嚴法,凍結憲法有關
自由、民權的內容。在其「戡亂體制」下
,蔣介石權力甚大,國會則不需改選,由
大陸來台的第一屆民意代表繼續充當立委
、監委及國大。在外交上,則自稱是代表
全中國的唯一合法政府。總之,蔣介石流
亡入台後,是一個「一黨專政」與「個人
獨裁」的政治體制,在蔣介石主政的26年
間,台灣人為了成就蔣介石的「反共復國
」的政治迷思,在內政、外交、社會等多
方面犧牲不少人力、物力和時光。今天許
多問題的癥結也種因於此。

The nation-defining conceptual framework designed
by this settler-state KMT regime in Taiwan was
that of a nation encompassing the whole of China.
Despite the fact that the KMT regime had long
since abandoned its China homeland, it nevertheless
took that homeland as its basis for national
identity. Vowing to once more "revive and recover
the nation," they composed stories based on the
ancient feudal era of Chinese history, such as
"Tien Tan Recovers the Kingdom" [referring to
General Tien Tan of the state of Chi (齊)
during the Warring States period, who recovered
his homeland from the hands of Yen (燕) invaders]
or "Shao Kang Revives the Kingdom" [referring to
the ruler who saved the Hsia Dynasty from demise],
in order to "educate" Taiwan's people, urging them
"Don't forget the time at Chu" [referring to a
battle in Chinese history whereby the hero turned
the near defeat and humiliation of the state of
Chu (筥) into glorious victory]. The entire
content of their educational and values systems
took China as its foundation of thought, without
the least vestige of native Taiwan identity. Its
aim was to instill in the public an affection for
their Chinese homeland and filial loyalty to the
paramount leader, embodying neither any
understanding of Taiwan history nor any cultivation
of modern-day national consciousness. Although the
KMT settlers brought with them a constitution
stipulating freedom and people's rights, they
could nevertheless freeze constitutional provisions
regarding freedom and people's rights in the name
of "Mobilization for the Suppression of Communist
Rebellion" laws and the need for martial law. Under
these laws Chiang K'ai-shek was granted great
personal power, and representative assembly
elections were no longer required, with the
original group of representatives from the
mainland continued occupying in their seats
in the Legislative Yuan, Control Yuan, and
National Assembly. On the diplomatic front,
the KMT regime claimed to be the sole legal
government of all of China. In sum, after
Chiang K'ai-shek's exile to Taiwan, totalitarian
one-party rule led by a one-man dictator became
the political system of Taiwan, and during the
26 years of Chiang-led rule, for the sake of
realizing his political obsession with
"overthrowing the communists and reviving the
country," the people of Taiwan were forced to
make tremendous sacrifices in manpower,
materiel and time on domestic governmental,
foreign diplomatic and social fronts. Therein
lies the ultimate source of so many problems
currently dogging Taiwan.

台灣與中國持續分隔的歷史之必然

最後還值得一提的,蔣政權移入台灣,使
台灣與中國之間又分隔開來。經過五十年
的日本統治,台灣與中國之間已有極大差
異。戰後那四年之間,又發生二二八事件
的衝突,雙方未及充分交流,蔣政權就匆
匆流亡入台,台灣與中國之間,至此一隔
又半世紀以上。這樣的歷史發展,使得海
峽雙方發展成兩個國家,似乎是歷史演變
的必然。


Separation of Taiwan and China:a matter of
historical inevitability

Worth noting, in conclusion, is the fact that
the Chiang regime's exile to Taiwan resulted
in continuation of alienation between Taiwan
and China. A half century of Japanese rule had
earlier produced a conspicuous difference between
Taiwan and China. In the 4-year interregnum after
WW II, there also occurred the February 28
Incident [which spoiled the chance for
harmonization of mainland Chinese and Taiwan's
native inhabitants], and before the two sides
had any opportunity for deep-reaching interchange,
the Chiang regime scurried into exile in Taiwan,
bringing about a further half-century-plus of
estrangement between Taiwan and China continuing
to this day. This course of history has caused
the two sides of the Taiwan Straits to develop
into two different countries, the seemingly
inevitable outcome of such historical evolution.


Edited by Hsu, Shiou-Iuan/ translated by Elizabeth Hoile
(李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯)
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