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原住民、早住民與新住民
Original, Early and New Inhabitants

戴寶村/Tai Pao-tsun
(中央大學歷史研究所教授)
(Professor of Central University Graduate School of History)

2001-12-17


Added together the new inhabitants are entering their
third generation and look at from the perspective of
the acclimatization of three generations, with deep
roots in Taiwan, the new inhabitants are all
Taiwanese.

台灣是一個多元族群的國家,通常有所謂原
住民、福佬人、客家人、外省人四大族群之
分,多元族群形塑台灣豐富多樣的文化,而
觀察瞭解族群關係的歷史演變,及族群意識
發展出的台灣人的認同,乃是建立台灣為一
永續發展國家必須面對的課題。本週「台灣
歷史之窗」特別邀請中央大學歷史研究所教
授戴寶村執筆,以「原住民」、「早住民」
與「新住民」三個名稱重新定義生活在這塊
土地上的不同族群,除述說各族群文化之演
變與分流,亦闡述各族群關係與生活上之融
合,多元文化的命運共同體乃台灣國家建構
的歷史與未來。

Taiwan is a multi-ethnic country. The ethnic groups
are normally classified into the four main categories
of aboriginal peoples, Fukienese, Hakka, and
mainlanders. Multi-ethnicity has shaped Taiwan's
rich and varied culture and investigating and
understanding the evolving history of relations
between the ethnic groups and the Taiwanese identity
that has developed out of an ethnic consciousness
must be faced in order to establish sustained
development of the Taiwanese nation. This week,
Window on Taiwan has invited Professor Tai Pao-tsun,
from the Central University's Graduate School of History
to write specially of the shared destiny of multi-
culturalism, that constitutes the past and future of the
nation of Taiwan, from the perspective of the ethnic
groups who inhabit this land, redefined as the "original
inhabitants", "early inhabitants" and "new inhabitants", in
addition to speaking of the evolution and branches of each
group's culture and expounding on the relationships
between the ethnic groups and the intermingling of their
lives together.

原住民族--被邊緣化的族群歷史

台灣的原住民族分成十族,目前還在擴衍分
族中;39萬人口僅佔台灣總人口的1.7%,各
族人口差別甚多,分佈地區又廣,一世紀前
才由部落社會編納入近代國家體制,由於長
期受外來政權機制的統治及資本主義經濟衝
擊,加上文化教育改造,使原住民族的政治
、經濟、社會、文化各方面一直處於低落化
、邊緣化的處境。


The aboriginal peoples: The history of a marginalized
people

Taiwan's aboriginal people are comprised of ten ethnic
groups, which are currently splitting into further ethnic
divisions. The 390,000 strong aboriginal population
accounts for only 1.7 percent of the total population and
there are large differences in the size of the populations of
each aboriginal group which are spread over a large area.
It was only a century ago that the tribal societies were
incorporated into the system of the modern nation. As a
result of being subjected to long-term rule by the
mechanisms of foreign regimes and the attacks of
capitalist economics, in addition to cultural and
educational transformations, the politics, economics,
society, and all cultural aspects of the aboriginal peoples
have continuously marginalized and in a state of decline.

近年來隨著原住民社會運動與政治民主化的
走向,原住民事物才成為比較受重視的公共
政策,各級政府設立原住民事務部門,教育
文化方面也漸有改善。平埔族原住民與早期
漢人移民混融而喪失期族群文化特徵,但「
有唐山公,無唐山媽」的俗諺和陳順勝、林
媽利醫師有關台灣人遺傳基因的研究,提供
了台灣人原生論的認同基礎。


It is only in recent years, following the aboriginal social
movement and the trend towards democratic politics, that
the plight of the aboriginal peoples has received more
attention from public policy with the establishment of an
aboriginal affairs department at each level of government
that the educational and cultural aspects have gradually
improved. Intermingling between the Pingpu (lowland)
aboriginal tribe and the early Han immigrants has resulted
in the loss of their distinct cultural characteristics.
However, the folk saying "there are mainland grandfathers
but no mainland grandmothers" and research, concerning
the genes of the people of Taiwan by Dr. Chen Shun-
sheng and Dr. Lin Ma-li provide the theories of the origins
of the Taiwanese people with a foundation for
identification.

文化再興喚起族群意識與族群認同

平埔族歷史、祭儀、音樂等的文化再現,使
一些人重新發現自我而要「脫漢入番」,移
居到花蓮的噶瑪蘭(Kavalan)人提出列入原
住民第十族的要求,因邵( Sao )族已正名
成功,他們可能繼續推動歸屬第十一族原住
民的訴求,而十族原住民則有再分族的現象
,如花蓮的太魯閣(Truku)族也一直想從泰
雅( Atayal )族分立出來。另外,原住民為
了進一步爭取其族群權益,鄒(Tsou)族和
達悟( Tao )族已在醞釀自治運動。漢人從
原漢關係追求尋根認同,原住民的族群運動
則呈現追求公平權益,同時也在建構族群認
同。




Culture renewing interest in ethnic consciousness and
identification

The history, ceremonial rites, and music of the Pingpu
culture is reemerging and bringing about a rediscovery of
the self and the desire to "escape the Han and join the
aboriginal people", in some people. The Kavalan people
who migrated to Hualien have demanded that they be
recognized as the tenth aboriginal ethnic group. As the Sao
tribe has been successful in getting its name officially
recognized, it is likely that they will continue with their
demands for recognition as the 11th aboriginal tribe. There
is the phenomenon of a further division among the ten
aboriginal tribes as seen in the long-term aspirations of the
Truku tribe in Hualien to separate from the Atayal tribe. In
addition, as part of the aboriginal peoples struggle to
further the rights and interests of their ethnic group, a self-
government movement is brewing among the people of
the Tsou and Tao tribes. The Han people seek identification
with their roots through a relationship with the original
Han people, while the ethnic movement of the aboriginal
peoples is a pursuit of equality rights as they establish an
ethnic identity.



原住民的移民因素與定居初期

漢語系移民主要來自中國福建、廣東,因而
有福佬( Holo )客家( Hakka)之分,福佬
人口約佔 70%,客家人口約佔 15%,相對於
原住民實可合稱為「早住民」。早住民受迫
於人口壓力的經濟因素而冒險渡過黑水溝來
台,因此有「唐山過台灣,心肝結歸丸」、
「六死三留一回頭」的心酸諺語。



The reasons for the immigration of the early inhabitants
and the early settlement period

The origins of the Han language family immigrants are
traced to Fukien and Canton provinces in China accounting
for the distinct Fukienese (Holo) and Hakka groups. The
Fukienese make up approximately 70 percent of the
population with the Hakka accounting for approximately
15 percent and in relation to the aboriginal peoples can
together be referred to as the "early inhabitants". The early
inhabitants were compelled to risk crossing the Taiwan
Strait as a result of economic factors arising from the
pressures of over-population. This can be seen in the folk
heartsick sayings, "crossing from the mainland to Taiwan
will tie your heart in knots" and "(in crossing) six will die,
three will remain and one will turn back".



早期移民以「賺食人」的心態打拼開拓生活
的園地,面對清帝國政府的劣政污吏經常豎
旗抗官,不過卻從未成功,如1786-1788年林
爽文起兵反清,一度控制近半個台灣,是清
代台灣最大規模民變,但因缺乏號召全島住
民的政治理念和動員機制,林爽文軍隊南下
想進攻台南府城,在嘉義遭到同屬漳州祖籍
的諸羅城人守城頑抗,客家人基於保衛鄉土
安定家園的觀念,也助清軍平亂。林爽文終
於失敗被殺徒留「爽文路」、「爽文坑」的
地名而已,相較於同時期一七七六年的美國
獨立戰爭和一七八九年的法國大革命,美、
法兩國的獨立建國與君主立憲,開創歷史影
響全世界,林爽文的反清只是「官逼民反」
的原始反抗而已。

The early immigrants intent on "eking out an existence"
worked tirelessly to carve out an existence. Confronted
with the poor government and corrupt officials of the
imperial Ching Dynasty they often resisted the officials in
defense of the people. However, their resistance was never
successful. The opposition to the Ching Dynasty by Lin
Shuang-wen's troops from 1786 to 1788, controlled, for a
time, nearly half of the island of Taiwan and was the
largest popular uprising during the Ching Dynasty on the
island of Taiwan. However, lacking a broad based appeal
to the political concepts and mobilization mechanisms of
all of the inhabitants of Taiwan, Lin Shuang-wen on his
way south in a bid to attack the seat of government in
Tainan met stubborn resistance, in defense of their city,
from the people of Chuluo City in Chiayi, whose ancestral
home was also Changchou City. The Hakka people on the
basis of protecting their land and maintaining stability also
came to the assistance of the Ching in suppressing the
revolt. Lin Shuang-wen was eventually defeated and killed
leaving behind only the place names "Shuang-wen Road"
and the "Shuang-wen Tunnel". Relative to the 1776
American War of Independence and the 1789 French
Revolution from the same period and their respective
establishment of an independent nation and a constitutional
monarchy, which had historical implications for the history
of the whole world, Lin Shuang-wen's opposition to the
Ching Dynasty was merely a primitive "revolt against
official oppression".

族群屬性漸模糊,福佬、客家一家親

清代台灣的福、客、漳、泉族群因語言、習
俗、信仰有別、經濟資源的競爭加上清政府
「分化利用」的統治政策,使異族群人民一
再爆發分類集體械鬥,甚至造成族群關係的
刻版印象化。然而隨著落地生根的生命史歷
程而「在地化」,所謂:「一代親二代表三
代散了了」,終而「金門不認同安,台灣不
認唐山」。清治末期一八八四年法軍攻台,
不分福、客人士均出力抗法,「西仔來打咱
台灣,大家何齊來打番(法國人)」的諺語
就是台灣人敵愾同仇的表徵。



Ethnicity gradually blurred: A single family of Fukienese
and Hakka

During the Ching Dynasty differences in the languages,
customs and beliefs of the Hakka and Fukienese ethnic
groups, and even between the distinctive Chang, and
Chuan Fukienese, competition for economic resources
together with the Ching government's policy of
"employing racial strife" led to the repeated outbreak of
fighting along ethnic lines and even created a lasting stain
on ethnic relations. Nevertheless, following the historical
process of putting down deep roots and a "acclimatization"
there emerged a phenomenon which is summed up as "a
close first generation, a degree of separation in the second
generation and a scattering of the third generation" and
"Kinmen doesn't acknowledge Tongan, Taiwan doesn't
acknowledge the mainland". In 1884, at the end of the
Ching Dynasty, French forces attacked Taiwan provoking
a concerted effort to resist the French that didn't
discriminate between the Fukienese and Hakka. The folk
saying, "Son's of the West have come to attack our
Taiwan, everybody unite to attack the barbarians (French)"
characterizes the Taiwanese people's shared hatred for the
enemy.



日本治台之後,有效率化的行政、全島交通
體系的建立、語文資訊傳播等更有助形塑全
島的一體性。如今已漳、泉難分,很多人對
自己的族群屬性已相當模糊。這些年來,有
越來越多的福佬客知道自己是「客底的」,
原來福佬、客家一家親,早已創造「Halo」
一族。

After Japanese rule, an efficient administration, the
establishment of an island-wide transportation system and
the dissemination of language information helped to shape
the island into a whole. At present, it is difficult to
distinguish between the Chang and Chuan and many
people are quite vague about their ethnic attributes. Over
recent years, more and more Fukienese settlers have come
to know that they have a "Hakka background" and it turns
out that intermarriage between the Fukienese and the
Hakka had long before created the single ethnic group of
the "Halo".

從「外省人」到「新住民」--「芋仔」、「
芋蕃」在台灣

一九四九年,約一五○萬中國大陸各省人民
移居台灣堪稱是上世紀全世界最大規模的移
民,這些移民及其後裔長期被稱為「外省人
」,隨著歷史的推移,此用語今日已不盡適
用,尤其是「台灣省政府」的「省」等成動
詞用而廢省之後,應該用帶有動態演變的「
新住民」來取代外省人一詞。新住民因移民
時間、地區、背景、居住分佈、職業、心態
等與早住民有所不同,加上二二八事件與長
期不民主的威權體制政治情勢,造成所謂的
省籍問題,族群關係問題過去在國民黨營造
全民團結的假象下隱而不顯,然而族群要素
常在自然或有意的情況下,對政治事務發揮
動員機制的作用。



From "mainlander" to "new inhabitant"-- "Son of a taro
root" and "taro root-sweet potato hybrids" on Taiwan

In 1949, roughly 1.5 million Mainland Chinese, from
every province in China, migrated to Taiwan in what may
be referred to as the largest immigration of the last century.
These immigrants and their offspring have long been
referred to as "Mainlanders". Following the passage of
history, this term has exhausted its appropriateness,
especially with the demise of "province" in "The Provincial
Government of Taiwan", following the abolishment of the
provincial government, and should be substituted with the
term "new inhabitants" with its connotations of the
evolving developments. The new inhabitants, because of
differences in the period of immigration, place of origin,
background, residential distribution, occupation and
disposition between them and the early inhabitants in
addition to the 228 incident and the situation of a long-term
authoritarian political system, resulted in what is referred to
as a province of origin problem. The problems associated
with ethnic relations were concealed under the Kuomintang
orchestrated illusion of a united people, however elements
of ethnicity often, either under natural conditions or
purposefully, have served the function of a mobilizing
mechanism in political affairs.


新住民的落地生根

早住民與新住民族群有所不同是自然現象,
但是差異未必就會對立。半個世紀來,異時
移民群共處海島台灣的生活空間,接受相同
的教育,超過百分之二十的異省通婚率,尤
其新住民移台時和清代一樣是男多女少,「
芋仔」和「蕃薯」所生的「芋蕃」就是「有
唐山公無唐山媽」的再版。名作家馬奎斯曾
言:「一個人若沒有他的親人埋葬在他所生
活的土地,他就不是屬於這片土地的人」,
這是從生到死認同歷程的最佳詮釋。目前從
新住民的「開台祖」算起也已進入第三代,
用三代在地化落地生根的角度來看,新住民
也都同樣是台灣人。


The putting down of roots of the new inhabitants

That there are differences between the early inhabitants and
new inhabitants is a natural phenomenon, but difference
doesn't predicate confrontation. Over half a century, the
immigrants from different periods have shared the same
living space on the island of Taiwan, received the same
education, a 20 percent marriage rate between people who
originated from different provinces in China, and
especially because in immigrating to Taiwan the new
inhabitants were similar to the Ching Dynasty inhabitants
in that they were predominantly male and thus the "taro
root sons (mainlanders)" and the "sweet potatoes
(Taiwanese)" gave birth to "taro root-sweet potato hybrids"
which is a remake of "there are mainland grandfathers but
no mainland grandmothers". The famous author Gabriel
Garcia Marquez said, " that if a person has no family
buried on the land in which he lives then he is not someone
who belongs to this land". This is the best interpretation of
a process of identification that encompasses a concept of
from life to death. At present, calculated from the "first
generation of Taiwanese" the new inhabitants are already
entering the third generation. Looked at from the
perspective of the acclimatization of three generations with
deep roots, the new inhabitants are all Taiwanese.


族群融合,營造永續發展的生活環境與國家

原住民、早住民、新住民間有族群文化差異
,族群因素影響政治動員也是常態,這些並
無礙於立基台灣命運共同體的國家建構。早
在一七二一年,由朱一貴反清事件而激起族
群分類對抗,隨清軍來的藍鼎元就曾呼籲台
人:「…汝等客民與漳、泉各處之人,同自
內地出來,同屬天涯海外、離鄉背井之客,
為貧所驅,彼此同痛,幸得同居一郡,正宜
相親相愛,何苦無故生嫌隙,以致相仇相怨
,互相戕賊?」因此台灣人無論先來後到,
應該相互瞭解,欣賞不同族群的語言、文化
,建立人地相依的在地認同,營造永續發展
的生活環境與國家。



Fusing of the ethnic groups: building a nation and a living
environment of sustainable development

There are differences between the cultures of the original,
early and new inhabitants and it is normal for ethnic
factors to influence political mobilization, but these facts
don't prevent the forming of a single nation with a shared
fate. At an early date, Chu Yi-kuei, in 1721, in the anti-
Ching Dynasty incident, evoked hostility between the
ethnic divisions on Taiwan which prompted Lan Ting-
yuan, who came with the Ching troops, to make the
following appeal to the Taiwanese: "you are settlers from
places like Chang and Chuan, together in the remotest
corner of the earth, settlers who have left your native
homes driven out by poverty sharing the same pains and
fortunate to live together in the same prefecture. It is
appropriate that you feel great love and attachment to each
other, so how is it that you allow animosity to come
between you that leads to enmity and resentment and
mutual theft and murder?" As a result, regardless of
who among the Taiwanese was the first to come and
the last to arrive, there should be mutual understanding
and appreciation for the different ethnic languages and
cultures. With the establishment of the recognition of
the interdependence of the people who exist on this land
a living environment and nation of sustainable
development can be constructed.




Viewpoint has a weekly feature every Monday entitled "Window on Taiwan,"
This weekly feature is produced with guidance from the Ministry of Education,
and is sponsored jointly by the Institute for National Development, the Taiwan
Historical Association and the Taiwan News. Finally, we are grateful to Cultural
Affair Bureau of Hsinchu Municipal for providing us with valuable historical
photographs.

Compiled and edited by Tina Lee/Translated by Gavin Keay Sadler
(李美儀編輯/阿文翻譯)
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