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《Taiwan News》
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邁向21世紀的台灣
Toward a new 21st century Taiwan

張炎憲/Chang Yen-hsien
(國史館館長)
(Curator, National Museum of History)

2002-01-07


the Aborigines' themselves ought to be nurtured
so as to enable them to hold their own cultural
traditions in esteem and be proud of being
Taiwan's original peoples.

2000年的總統大選,國民黨終於下臺,結束
了長達半世紀的統治。民進黨代之而起,贏
得選舉,取得首次執政的機會。這是台灣史
上空前的創舉,不只在政治上政黨輪替,開
啟民主新頁,在歷史文化上更是標示著新時
代的開始,台灣人漸漸走出歷史悲情,而有
信心當家做主,建設自己的國家。但政黨輪
替僅是一個歷史發展的契機,長久以來,憲
政體制為獨裁政權所箝制利用,教育與社會
文化亦籠罩在一股大中國意識的氛圍之中,
使台灣在民主建國的道路上,面臨內部意識
的重整、國家建構和主權獨立等種種問題。
本週台灣歷史之窗特別邀請國史館館長張炎
憲執筆,探討在這個歷史的轉折點上,台灣
人應有的歷史認知,以及邁向未來種種困難
險阻時,所應擁有的理想與自信。

As the consequence of Taiwan's 2000 presidential
election, the Kuomintang political party was obliged
to finally relinquish power after nearly half century
of rule, and the victorious Democratic Progressive
Party won its first chance to prove its worthiness
as Taiwan's ruling party. This constitutes an
unparalleled creative turning point in Taiwan's
history since, more than being a matter of change
of ruling parties and opening of a new chapter in
the development of democracy, it marks the beginning
of a brand new historical and cultural era, in which
the Taiwan people will gradually leave behind there
historical legacy of sorrow and with new confidence
become their own masters and form a nation of their
own making. The transition of ruling parties,
however, only offers an opportune moment for
historical development. Heretofore, the country's
constitutional system has long been manipulated by
an autocratic regime as a tool of repression, and
education and social culture has been enveloped in
a miasma of "Big China" consciousness posing a
variety of difficulties on its road to creation
of a democratic nation with respect to adjustment
of its internal social consciousness, structuring
of its polity, and its sovereign, independent
status. For this week's Window on Taiwan, the
Taiwan News has invited Chang Yen-hsien, Curator
of the National Museum of History, to examine the
recognition of historical facts with which the
people of Taiwan must be equipped at this momentous
turning point in its historical development as well
as the ideals and confidence they must possess as
they move forward and grapple with all manner of
difficulties and dangers.

外來政權壓迫下宿命的民族性格

台灣自有歷史記載以來,台灣人一直活在外
來政權的統治下,任憑支配,如有反抗,常
遭無情的鎮壓,重則槍決,抄家滅族;輕則
服刑,成為黑名單,在社會上無法立足。反
抗雖有理,但遭受的命運卻是生命財產的喪
失。台灣人見到血淋淋的教訓,體會出政治
的無情、世間的冷竣,心中自然充滿灰色無
助,不敢再挺身而起,為社會正義說公道話
,久而久之,乃成為社會風氣,自掃門前雪
,不理瓦上霜。沉潛含蘊有足,勇氣承擔則
不足。在文學作品和音樂創作上充分顯示這
樣的氣質,使人閱讀、聆聽,不禁悲從中來




Taiwanese fatalism under the oppression of alien rule

Throughout nearly all of Taiwan's recorded history, its
people have constantly lived under the domination of
alien powers. Expressions of opposition have met with
brutal suppression, the more severe expressions of
which have been executions and even extinguishing of
entire family and clan lineages, more lenient
expressions being imprisonment and blacklisting,
rendering victims unable to establish themselves as
viable members of society. Despite the reasonableness
of their opposition, the fate of protesters has been
loss of life or material well-being. Having learned
such bloody lessons and having felt the cruelty of
politics and the heartlessness of the world over a
protracted period of time, the people of Taiwan have
understandably come to have a pervasive society-wide
sense of pessimism and helplessness, daring not to
stand upright, move bravely forward, and speak out
for social justice, opting instead to mind their
personal businesses and let the world go its way.
They have become strong in forbearance but weak in
taking bold action. This character of Taiwan's
people is clearly reflected in the deep sorrow
evoked by much of their literature and musical
works.



歷史無奈的宿命感幾乎已經成為台灣人自我
解嘲的金科玉律,抗議時指責執政黨的錯誤
,苟且時則推拖於恐怖的無奈,一切責任不
在我,而是國民黨。這種逃避心態阻礙台灣
人面對現實、決定自己命運的勇氣。


This sense of fatalism nurtured by impotence in the
face of historical developments until recently had
nearly become the Taiwan people's golden rule
rationalization of their inadequacies. When they
have voiced their dissatisfactions, it has been only
to put the blame for troubles on the ruling party;
and when they have behave in unprincipled ways,
they have placed the blame on the years of terror
which they have had to undergo -- "It's not my
fault but that of the Kuomintang (KMT)." This
escapist mentality has become a stumbling block
in the Taiwan people's search for the courage to
face reality and become masters of their own
destiny.

政黨輪替--歷史轉折的契機

在這種無奈中,雖然有人起來反抗國民黨的
不公不義,但總是少數。台灣人期待著改朝
換代,國民黨能下臺,卻沒有人敢奢望國民
黨會真的下台。因此,2000年大選的意義特
別重大,它改變了過去不可能的任務,國民
黨真的下臺了,台灣本土政黨上台了。悲情
的歷史宿命有了轉捩點,反抗是有可能改變
歷史的,台灣人過去的歷史也因此需要重新
詮釋、重新認識。


Transition of ruling parties: a historic opportunity

Given this mindset of resignation, although there
have indeed been those who have dared to stand up
and resist the injustices of the former KMT regime,
they have until recent times always constituted the
minority. While the Taiwan people have wished for a
change of governors and looked forward to the KMT's
removal from power, very few had faith in the
possibility of actually realizing such aspirations.
The 2000 presidential election, therefore, was
particularly momentous, for it changed that sense
of "mission impossible:" the KMT did in fact lose
its leadership position to be supplanted by a
home-grown political party. Now that their
sorrowful historical fatalism has thus come to a
turning point, and events have demonstrated that
positive opposition can indeed change history,
there is a need for a reappraisal and new
understanding of the Taiwan people's past
history.





「本土化」的真實意涵

2000年的政黨輪替,落實了李登輝時代所標
榜的「本土化」和「民主化」。民主運動過
去被國民黨政府視同叛亂而加以壓制,而今
卻重新受到肯定與重視;民主化過程中的人
物和事蹟成為台灣歷史的一部份,接受批評
和詮釋。因為這關鍵性的轉變,台灣史乃趨
向多元,趨向以人民為主的觀點,這是歷史
的重新洗牌,也是被壓抑者翻身的機會。在
台灣,「本土化」本是理所當然的事,但長
期以來被污名化,被認為是狹隘、排他、反
中國的主張。其實在台灣若沒有本土性格,
才是令人匪夷所思。


The genuine meaning of "nativisation"

The 2000 transition of ruling parties was a
concrete realization of the ideals of "nativisation"
and "democratization" espoused by [ex-President] Lee
Teng-hui. The democracy movement, equated by the
former KMT regime as rebellion which had to be
suppressed, has now won positive affirmation and
has been recognized as an imperative; and democracy
movement activists and their actions have now become
formal history, subject to critical analysis and
evaluation. As the consequence of this momentous
change of affairs, Taiwan history is now developing
in the direction of greater pluralism and the concept
of the people as rulers -- a dramatic reshuffling of
the deck of history and a chance for the once
oppressed to arise. "Nativisation" by rights ought
to be a matter-of-fact thing in Taiwan yet for a
long time has been vilified, characterized as
advocacy of a narrow, rejectionist, anti-China
mentality; whereas in fact, what would truly be
bizarre is a Taiwan without its own defining
character.





「本土化」含有建設自己特色的意涵。外來
統治者通常會強勢導入外來文化,漠視排斥
台灣文化。因此,本土化應具有重新發掘台
灣文化特色、重新建構歷史傳承,落實台灣
人夢想與追求的意涵。

The essential meaning of "nativisation" is the
establishment of one's own homeland's unique
characteristics. Therefore, nativisation should
be understood as development of Taiwan's cultural
identity, reconstruction of its historical lineage,
and realization of the dreams and aspirations of
its people.

台灣人最大的願望其實是建設自己的家園成
為安身立命之處,不用再漂泊、再恐懼;並
形塑自己的國家,成為國家真正的主人,休
戚與共,安全安心,不再受外來統治者的支
配鎮壓。



In truth, the fondest hope of the Taiwan people is
to build their homeland into a place where they can
live in spiritual and physical peace and security,
no longer having to live in uncertainty and terror;
to form a nation of their own choosing, in which
they are truly their own masters and everyone is
animated by a desire to devote themselves to the
commonweal.



獨立主張的萌芽與成長

日治時代,台灣人受到近代思潮的洗禮,展
開左右翼的政治社會變動,提出自立、自決
和獨立的主張,雖然被日本壓抑而無法伸張
,但其精神延續至國民黨統治時代,經228
事件的慘痛教訓,轉化成為台灣獨立建國的
力量,衝撞台灣社會。這股力量雖被國民黨
刻意壓制,卻日益壯大,受到民眾的支持,
而成為改變台灣的主要動力。一九八○年代
中葉之後,台灣民主化和本土化的快速成長
即是這股力量衝擊台灣,崩解國民黨統治神
話所造成。至今,它仍是改變台灣、形塑台
灣的最大力量。


The sprouting and maturation of Taiwan independence
advocacy

During the Japanese colonial era, the Taiwan people
underwent a baptism of modern [Western] thought,
giving rise to a polarization of progressive vs.
conservative forces in politics and society.
Although advocacy of self-sufficiency, self-
determination and independence met with suppression
by Japan and could not develop widely in the society,
its spirit nevertheless survived into and throughout
the period of KMT rule and, in the wake of the
painful lesson of the February 28 Incident,
manifested a society-jolting energy encouraging the
building of an independent Taiwan nation. Despite
the KMT's swift action aimed at suppressing that
spirit, it steadily grew in strength nonetheless,
winning the support of the people and becoming the
primary motive force animating Taiwan society. The
fast-pace growth of Taiwan democratization and
nativisation which occurred in the mid-to-late
1980s is the product of that spiritual force's
shaking-up of Taiwan society and its disintegration
of the myth of the [legitimacy of] KMT rule -- a
spirit which lives on even now as the greatest force
driving the transformation and reformation of Taiwan.


至2000年,台灣已完成階段性的任務,政黨
輪替、社會開放多元、言論思想自由,經濟
生活富裕,但國家認同意識尚未整合、國家
定位仍然曖昧不清,困擾台灣人的心靈。因
此,20世紀未完成的國家建構,將繼續於21
世紀發揮其威力,成為主要的運動目標和議
題。



As of 2000, Taiwan had completed a number of partial
missions -- the transition of ruling parties,
creation of an open and pluralistic society, securing
the freedoms of speech and press, and building
economic prosperity -- but the failure thus far to
coalesce a firm sense of national identity, and the
vagueness and uncertainty of Taiwan's international
status, still trouble the spirit of its people.
Hence, the as yet incomplete mission of nation-
building left over from the 20th century will
continue to exert its animating force in the 21st
century, constituting the society's prime objective
and social issue.


教育改革--教出愛台灣的孩子

在國家形構的目標下,台灣教育需要通盤考
慮和修改。教育的立足點應該從台灣出發,
擴及於世界,將台灣歷史的特質、文化的優
美介紹給台灣子弟,並且吸收世界新知,容
納入台灣文化之中,再創新文化。以此作為
教科書編定的標準和教育內容,所教育出來
的學生才會有台灣感情,愛惜台灣,為台灣
而努力。




Educational reform: nurturing love of Taiwan in
children

Given that goal of giving form to a Taiwan nation,
education in Taiwan must undergo comprehensive
reconsideration and revision. Education in Taiwan
ought to take Taiwan as its point of departure,
gradually expanding in scope to encompass the whole
world. It should introduce to Taiwan's new generation
the distinguishing characteristics of its particular
history and the outstanding beauty of its culture,
in addition to which it should enable them to absorb
new knowledge from the rest of the world, incorporate
it into Taiwan culture, and generate new culture.
Only if this is taken as the standard for editing
textbooks and becomes the actual content of education
will the young people produced by the educational
process have affection for Taiwan, treasure Taiwan,
and work hard for Taiwan.




教育內容的改變,才是教改最重要的精神。
教育改革之後,思維方式才會改變,從台灣
思考世界是建立台灣主體性的基礎。以台灣
做為思考主體之後,看到台灣一草一木,自
然會生出維護大自然生態,保護乾淨國土的
感情。有如此念頭,就不會破壞土地,反而
會珍惜它,讓美麗山河永遠保存。


It is with respect to transformation of educational
content wherein resides the primary spirit of
education. Only as the result of educational reform
can ways of thinking change, contemplation of the
world from the vantage point of Taiwan being the
foundation of Taiwan identity. Once Taiwan has
become as the prime reference point for thought,
Taiwan's every blade of grass and every tree seen
in that light will naturally evoke a heart-felt
will to preserve Taiwan's ecology and protect it's
environmental cleanliness. With such intent, people
cannot bear to damage the land but on the contrary
will cherish it, enabling its beautiful natural
environment to be eternally preserved for posterity.




對土地關懷,自然會對人產生關懷。原住民
文化需受到尊重之外,應該培養原住民,讓
原住民尊重自己的文化傳統,讓他們以身為
原住民為榮,並且重新檢視台灣歷史,去除
漢人沙文主義,以平等的史觀重新改寫台灣
史。不只重視原住民的權益,弱勢族群、性
別問題也都應平等相待。台灣人民由不同地
區、不同時代,分批移至台灣。各種不同族
群的歷史經驗都應融入台灣歷史之中,成為
台灣人民共同的歷史文化資產。如此,228
事件的傷痕、族群的衝突、階級的差異,都
可在相互體諒、瞭解對方心情之下,共享成
果,而逐漸打開心結;在珍惜台灣歷史文化
遺產的共識下,愛惜台灣。

When one cares for the land, one naturally cares
for its people. Besides the need for Taiwan's
aboriginal cultures to receive respect, the Aborigines'
themselves ought to be nurtured so as to enable them
to hold their own cultural traditions in esteem and
be proud of being Taiwan's original peoples. Further,
we must reexamine Taiwan's [recorded] history and
expunge from it its Han-chauvinist slant, rewriting
it from an equalitarian historical perspective which
not only respects the rights and interests of its
aboriginal peoples but gives equal attention to
other minority groups and to problems relating to
sexual equality. Taiwan's [Han] people immigrated
here in waves from different regions and in
different eras, and the historical experiences of
every group ought to be incorporated into Taiwan
history and become the shared historical, cultural
heritage of all Taiwan's people. In this way,
through reexamination of the scars left by the
February 28 Incident, clashes between various
groups and class consciousness in a new spirit
of mutual forgiveness and understanding of each
other's sentiments, we will be enabled to develop
a shared sense of accomplishment, gradually easing
the aches in our hearts, and, with a common
consciousness which cherishes Taiwan's historical
and cultural legacy, empowered to show our love
for Taiwan.



憲政改革與統獨意識之爭

除文化意識的整合之外,適合台灣的憲改結
構,建立小而美、效率高、服務民眾的政府
,也是應努力的方向。一九九○年代已進行
六次修憲,仍然與現實、理想有所差距。因
此,制訂符合台灣的憲法已是迫不及待的問
題。這雖會引起國家認同的爭論,但如果不
朝這方面改革,如何面對未來,迎向國際社
會的挑戰。


Constitutional reform and the clash between
unificationist and independence mentalities

In addition to adjustment of cultural consciousness,
revision of our Constitution to fit Taiwan's needs,
and building of a government predicated upon the
principles of "small is beautiful," a high degree
of efficiency and service to the people are also
directions in which we must labor mightily. Although
the Constitution was amended 6 times during the
1990s, there remain significant disparities between
the Constitution on the one hand and practical
reality and ideals on the other. Thus, establishment
of a Constitution which conforms with Taiwan has
become a matter of urgent importance. Although this
will provoke debate over the question of national
identity, if we fail to carry out reformation in
this respect, how shall we be able to meet the
future and face challenges in the international
arena?




內部問題才是台灣最主要的問題。國民黨長
期執政,宣導大中國主義,使得台灣本土精
神無法顯現,造成意識論爭,甚至以此作為
政治利益的交換和考量,危害台灣的生存空
間。解決這些問題會造成對立,但不忍受陣
痛帶來的不安,則無法解決根本問題。由此
問題,自然引伸至台灣與中國之間的問題,
被統一和獨立建國成為台灣未來發展必須面
對的問題,也是規劃未來藍圖時最具影響的
思考架構。

It is Taiwan's internal problems which are after
all most critical. The KMT's long years of rule and
propagandizing of a Big China identity made it
impossible for a native Taiwan spirit to shine forth,
creating discord with respect to social consciousness
-- a discord which has even been manipulated by some
as a basis for interchange and considerations
regarding political interest, thereby compromising
possibilities for Taiwan's continued existence.
Although solutions to this problem will engender
contention, resigned forbearance of an uneasiness
rooted in psychic pain can be of no benefit in
resolving fundamental problems. Of course, the scope
of the problem encompasses the relationship between
Taiwan and China, and question of whether we are to
be absorbed as a part of China or to build an
independent nation is one which the Taiwan's future
development must confront, in addition to its being
the most influential frame of considerations in
drawing up a blueprint for our future.



建立台灣國家,跨入國際社會

從內部變革、國家形象的凸顯,反應在外交
上,則強調台灣主權獨立概念,重新加入聯
合國,回歸國際社會,以平等互惠的立場建
構台灣與中國的關係。這些問題也許一時無
法解決,但台灣生命共同體意識的深化和普
遍化、台灣國家尊嚴的建立,將是21世紀台
灣人民永不止息的追求。


Building a Taiwan nation; assuming our place in
the international community

Internal reform and cultivation of a distinct
national identity will be reflected in our foreign
relations, emphasizing the principle of Taiwan's
independent status, readmittance of Taiwan into
the United Nations, assumption of Taiwan's rightful
place in the international community, and
establishment of Taiwan-China relations on a
foundation of equality and mutual benefit. While
these problems may not be resolvable in the
immediate future, the deepening and broadening of
consciousness of our shared destiny as one people
and the nurturing of esteem for Taiwan as a nation
will be the objective tirelessly pursued by the
people of Taiwan in this 21st century.




21世紀的台灣將面臨內部意識重整、國家建
構和主權獨立的問題。朝向新國家的建立,
不只是百年來台灣人民的願望和追求,更是
改變歷史發展的動力。在此形塑力量之下,
會有爭吵、不安,但也會帶來活力和傲人的
台灣國家形成典範,做為世人學習模仿敬佩
的對象。

The Taiwan of the 21st century will indeed be
confronted by challenges relating to consciousness
adjustment, nation building, sovereignty and
independence. Nevertheless, striving toward the
establishment of a new nation constitutes not only
the aspiration and objective of Taiwan's people
over the past century but the ongoing driving force
behind its historical evolution. Although under the
influence of this formative power, there must
inevitably arise discord and uneasiness, our
evolutionary process will nonetheless serve as a
shining example of a vigorous and proud nation
worthy of the world's emulation and esteem.



Compiled and edited by Tina Lee/Translated by James Decker
(李美儀編輯/曹篤明翻譯)
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